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Human Rights Developments Defending Human Rights
Human Rights Developments Defending Human Rights

Human Rights Developments Defending Human Rightsrgntin

umn Rights Dvlmnts

Dfnding umn Rights

h Rl f th Intrntinl mmunity
ruid by d nmi risis, th gvrnmnt f rsidnt Frnnd d l R&uut; did littl t rmt humn rights. n sltin f li buss in th rvin f uns irs m t ubli ttntin in tbr 2001, lding t th immdit dismissl f uns irs li nd justi ffiils. h urts md imrtnt strids twrd bringing t justi ths rsnsibl fr th grss humn rights viltins mmittd during th rid f militry rul (1976-1983). rsidnt d l R&uut; srly mmntd n ths dvlmnts. Instd f surting ths ffrts t brk imunity, his ministry f dfns bkd rgntin`s inrsingly qustind mnsty lws nd th gvrnmnt rjtd rqusts fr th trditin f frmr humn rights viltrs t stnd tril in ur.

UN RIGS DVLNS
li nggd in rtins t mbt urbn rim mmittd srius humn rights viltins. vidn mrgd during th yr tht th uns irs li hrssd nd thrtnd minrs fr dnuning mltrtmnt nd trtur in li sttins. Sm wr ltr sht dd in susiius inidnts ffiilly dsribd s firfights.
rding t th nngvrnmntl ntr fr Lgl nd Sil Studis (ntr d studis Lgls y Sils, LS), li killd sm 266 l in th lst si mnths f 2000 nd th first si mnths f 2001, mny f thm tngrs frm r urbn rs. h li ttributd mst ivilin killings t hngs f gunfir, but invstigtins by humn rights grus suggstd tht mny dths wr th rsult f ssiv us f lthl fr by th li, r dlibrt utins. During th first si mnths f 2001, fiftn minrs wr killd nd ightn wundd in shting inidnts in Grtr uns irs, rding t LS. Sm dlsnts rd t hv bn dlibrtly killd in rrisl fr dnuning tht thy hd bn trturd r mltrtd whil rviusly in li ustdy. In tbr 2001, th uns irs rvinil Surm urt rssd nrn but th dth f sity yung l in `llgd shtuts` in 1999 nd 2000 ftr thy hd fild mlints f trtur. ny hd rivd dth thrts bfr thy wr killd. h rvinil surity ministr, frmr li mmissinr Rm&ut;n Vr&ut;n, rlid t th llgtins by sying tht it ws `lmst srt` fr yung l t dnun trtur. rvinil gvrnr rls Rukuf, wh ws ltd in 1999 n tugh nti-rim ltfrm, immditly rld him nd th rvin`s ministr f justi. Vr&ut;n`s sussr, Jun Js&ut; lvrz, dmittd tht `n r tw` ss f li killings fllwing mlints f trtur hd bn rntly nfirmd.
urt ws invstigting th killing f furtn-yr-ld Gst&ut;n Glv&ut;n nd sitn-yr-ld igul urgs, whs bdis wr fund in ril by rdsid n th utskirts f uns irs. hir hnds nd ft wr tid, thir bdis hd multil bullt wunds, nd n f thm hd lsti bg tid vr his hd. h li mintind tht th dths wr th rsult f gng disut, but th yuths` rltivs sid tht li frm th r hd bn nstntly hrssing th bys. rsutr rvld tht, bfr thy wr killd, th yuths hd tld judg tht li tthd t li sttin in Dn rut, uns irs rvin, hd trturd thm. t th nd f tbr, fiv Dn rut limn, wh wr sustd f rrisl killings f minrs wh hd dnund trtur, wr rmvd frm thir sts.
Ill-trtmnt ws mmn in li sttins whr yung ffndrs wr hld in vrrwdd nd squlid nditins. thds f trtur rrtd inluding btings, hding with lsti bgs lmst t th int f sufftin, nd th us f ltri shk btns n snsitiv rts f th bdy, thniqus in widsrd us whn rgntin ws undr militry rul. hs rtis wr mst frquntly rrtd in th ulus grtr uns irs r. In July, ri riln, th hif stt dfns ttrny tthd t th riminl ls urt in th rvin f uns irs, issud rrt t th rvinil Surm urt giving dtils f mr thn si hundrd mlints f ill-trtmnt nd trtur md frm rh 2000 until July 2001. y lt tbr th urt hd infrmtin n mr thn 1,000 ss. In ugust, fur rstd fdrl judgs ublily rssd nrn but th rvln f trtur, ssrting tht th rti hd bm systmti in bth li sttins nd risns.
wnty-fur-yr-ld Jvir Villnuv, fr ml, ws rrstd n tbr 21, 2001, whil driving stln r in Lms d Zmr, uns irs rvin. ftr th rsutr intrviwing him ntid susiius mrks n his bdy h rdrd tht Villnuv b mind by dtr, wh fund tht h hd lsins nsistnt with ltri shk trtur. h rsutr rdrd n immdit instin f th li sttin in whih Villnuv hd bn hld; whr n ltri bl ws fund whih Villnuv llgd hd bn usd t trtur him. Si ffirs tthd t th Lms d Zmr rint, n f ths mst frquntly mntind in mlints, wr dtind nd hrgd with trtur nd bstruting justi.
In July, rsidnt Frnnd d l R&uut; nfirmd his intntin t intrdu in th hmbr f Dutis bill t rfrm th untry`s riminl dfmtin lw, n undrtking h md in rsns t svrl ss undr nsidrtin by th Intr-mrin mmissin n umn Rights. h bill, rsd by th nngvrnmntl rss frdm dvy gru ridists, imd t limint riminl dfmtin in th s f ubli figurs, nd t mk `tul mli` th bsi stndrd fr djuditing dfmtin suits. t this writing, rsnttin f th bill ws still witd. rvinil nd muniil uthritis nd mmbrs f th Snt, mnwhil, ntinud t us isting lws t rk dwn n rss ritis. In th rvin f Sntig dl str, whs gvrnmnt ws ntrlld by th rnist Justiilist rty, th l Librl nwsr ws th trgt f t lst lvn ivil suits brught by 4,000 mmbrs f th rty`s Wmn`s rnh, but whih th nwsr hd ublishd ritil rrts in 2000. s rsult, rvinil urt rdrd th sizur f mr thn 500,000 ss (rimtly U.S. $500,000) f th nwsr`s ssts, thrtning its survivl. h nwsr, with th lrgst rint-run in th rvin, ls fd disrimintin in th grnting f gvrnmnt dvrtising, nd svrl f its jurnlists wr hrssd.
ubli ffiils ntinud t fil riminl suits t dtr rss rrts f mlfsn, but in svrl ss highr urts fund in fvr f th jurnlists, ling t nstitutinl rinils rtting th ublitin f infrmtin in th ubli intrst. In July, th fdrl ls urt dismissd hrgs f viltin f nfidntility ginst jurnlist rl nlli, f th nwsr lr&iut;n, fr rvling dtils f th t rturns f frmr mngr f th stt nsins fund. In Stmbr, nthr hmbr f th sm urt dismissd riminl libl mlint fild by th sm ffiil ginst rtlm&ut; itr, dirtr f th nwsr L Ni&ut;n, fr rrting n riminl invstigtin in rgrss ginst him fr qustind ntrt.
h Surm urt, hwvr, itd rivy nrms t justify nltis ginst mgzin fr ublishing infrmtin f lr ubli intrst. In Stmbr, th Surm urt uhld lwr urt disin wrding riminl dmgs ginst th wkly nws mgzin Ntiis fr rrting in 1994 nd 1995 tht frmr rsidnt rls nm hd n illgitimt sn by ngrsswmn with whm h hd n ffir in th 1980s, nd tht h hd usd his ffi t dvn hr litil rr. h urt fund th mgzin t hv viltd nm`s right t rivy, vn thugh nithr h nr th urts qustind th truth f th llgtins.
Fdrl nd rvinil judgs ntinud t invstigt `disrns` nd trjudiil utins mmittd during th r f militry rul (1976-1983), in s-lld `truth trils.` h hrings sught t stblish th truth but th rims vn thugh ths rsnsibl uld nt b rsutd r nvitd bus f mnsty lws ssd in 1986 nd 1987. Frmr hif f stt Jrg Vidl, junt mmbr dmirl mili ssr, nd frmr mmndr f th First rmy rs rls Guillrm Su&ut;rz sn wr mng dzn rtird ffirs hld undr hus rrst n hrgs f rdring th thft f bbis brn t mthrs in srt dtntin nd thir hndvr fr dtin t militry fmilis. hs rims hd bn rssly ludd frm th mnsty lws.
n Jun 20, Vidl rd in urt t b qustind n hrgs f illiit ssitin, illgl rrst, nd trtur. ws usd f rtiiting in rtin ndr, srt ln dvisd by Suthrn n militry gvrnmnts t kidn, hng, r `disr` litil rfugs frm nighbring stts. w mnths rviusly, invstigting Judg Rdlf nib hd issud n intrntinl wrrnt fr th rrst nd trditin f frmr rguyn dittr lfrd Strssnr, nw in il in rsili, nd f nul ntrrs, th frmr hif f th DIN, inht`s srt li, in hil. n rly ml f rtin ndr ws th r-bmb ssssintin f hiln Gnrl rls rts nd his wif in uns irs in Stmbr 1974. In Nvmbr 2000, th Sith Fdrl rl urt in uns irs sntnd frmr hiln intllign gnt nriqu rnibi lvl, rsidnt f uns irs, t lif imrisnmnt s n mli in th rim. Invstigting judg r&iut; Srvini d ubr&iut; ws sking th trditin frm hil f frmr dittr ugust inht, nul ntrrs, nd fiv frmr DIN ffirs, fr lnning nd rrying ut th ssssintins. (S hil.)
In lndmrk disin in rh, fdrl judg Gbril vll bm th first rgntin judg t dlr th mnsty lws unnstitutinl nd null. Judg vll ws invstigting th thft f ludi blt, wh ws ight mnths ld whn sh nd hr rnts Js&ut; blt R nd Grtrudis lzik, `disrd` ftr militry tsk fr bdutd thm in Nvmbr 1978. h 188-g ruling, slidly bsd n intrntinl humn rights lw nd rdnts in rgntin jurisrudn, rgud tht th `full-st` nd `du bdin` lws f 1986 nd 1987 viltd rtils 29 nd 118 f th rgntin nstitutin, nd nflitd with rgntin`s bligtin t bring t justi ths rsnsibl fr rims ginst humnity. h tw li gnts usd f stling ludi blt nd illglly giving hr in dtin wr th first ffirs t b hrgd fr `disrns` sin 1987. n Nvmbr 9, thr-judg nl f th uns irs Fdrl urt unnimusly rjtd th dfndnts` l, nfirming bth th hrgs nd th nullity f th mnsty lws. h tril`s futur dndd n th Surm urt rtifying th Fdrl urt`s ruling, whih wuld rt rdnt fr srs f thr ss t b nd.
Whil th gvrnmnt nminlly surtd th truth nd bby thft trils, it sd ny hng in th sttus qu dfind by th mnsty lws. In sh in rh t militry rmny in &ut;rdb, Dfns inistr Junrn ntndd tht th rlngtin f th trils ws nt bnfiil fr nyn, nithr fr th vitims nr fr ths wh might b usd. Junrn`s rdssr s dfns ministr, Rird L&ut;z urhy, surtd th rmy whn, in th sm mnth, 663 ffirs in tiv srvi rsntd hbs dt dmnd ginst LS, dmnding tht it turn vr infrmtin tht might imlit th ffirs in humn rights bus. h rmy`s hif f stff, Gn. Rird rinzni, wh ws blivd t hv uthrizd th lgl tin, ws himslf th bjt f riminl mlint fild by LS in y fr his llgd invlvmnt in ntrius mssr f twnty-tw litil risnrs in rgrit l&ut;n, h rvin, n Dmbr 13, 1976. n rmy Dy, y 29, rsidnt D l R&uut; ublily dfndd rinzni in rmny ttndd by mmbrs f th militry junts.

DFNDING UN RIGS
Lwyrs nd humn rights tivists ntinud t f dth thrts nd hrssmnt. n Nvmbr 7, tild rur, humn rights lwyr in Rsri, rvin f Snt F, rivd n nnymus mssg with th wrds `rur, w r ging t kill yu with bullt thrugh yur hd.` During Jun nd tbr sh hd rivd similr thrts. thr humn rights lwyrs, inluding Jun Rbrt ri, Lindlf rtint, Vildr Grvlli, r&iut; ugni ggin, nd Jun Lwis suffrd brk-ins r rivd thrts rntly nntd t th ning f `truth tril` in Rsri.
In tbr 2000, rls Vrl, ljndr st, nd Dig Lvd, lwyrs rrsnting rltivs f th vitim f li killing, suffrd brk-in t thir ffi in ndz. h dsk mutrs wr nd, th hrd drivs rmvd, nd lt mutr ws stln. hy rrtd nthr brk-in t th nd f th yr. h undr-srtry fr humn rights t th inistry f Justi rrngd fr th thr t b givn li rttin.

RL F INRNINL UNIY

Unitd Ntins
In Nvmbr 2000, th umn Rights mmitt issud its nluding bsrvtins n rgntin`s rrt undr rtil 40 f th Intrntinl vnnt n ivil nd litil Rights. h mmitt rmmndd tht `grss viltins f ivil nd litil rights during militry rul shuld b rsutbl fr s lng s nssry, with libility s fr bk in tim s nssry t bring thir rtrtrs t justi.` In its nluding bsrvtins n rgntin`s rrt undr rtil 9 f th Intrntinl nvntin n th limintin f ll Frms f Disrimintin, th mmitt n th limintin f Ril Disrimintin rssd nrn vr rrts f rist li brutlity.

urn Unin
urts in Sin, Itly, Frn, nd Grmny ntinud t try, r sk th trditin f, mmbrs f th rgntin rmd frs fr th `disrn` f thir itizns during militry rul. In July, lfrd stiz, frmr gnt tthd t th Nvy hnis Shl (S), gv himslf u t uns irs li ftr fdrl judg r&iut; Srvini d ubr&iut; rdrd his rrst t th rqust f Itlin judg ludi rtr, fr th `disrn` in 1976 f thr Itlin itizns. Itly fild n trditin rqust, nd whil stiz ws in ustdy, Frn ls rqustd his trditin. Frnh urt hd sntnd stiz t lif imrisnmnt in bsnti in 1990 fr th `disrn` f tw Frnh nuns, li Dmn nd Lni Duqut, rim fr whih stiz hd bn srd tril in rgntin undr th du bdin lw.
In ugust, th inistry f Frign ffirs rfusd t trdit stiz, liming tht nly rgntin urts hd jurisditin fr rims mmittd in rgntin. Whil influntil rgntin judgs nd jurists hd ssimiltd th dtrin f intrntinl jurisditin fr rims ginst humnity, th gvrnmnt ws unwilling t llw th urts t did suh ss n thir lgl mrits. Sin thr wr n hrgs nding ginst him in rgntin, stiz ws immditly rlsd. In ntrst t its sitin n th stiz s, rgntin tk sitiv st twrd mbting imunity by rtifying th Rm rty fr th Intrntinl riminl urt (I).
In Dmbr 2000, Rm`s Snd riminl urt sntnd Gn. rls Guillrm Su&ut;rz sn, mmndr f th First rmy rs frm 1976 until 1980, nd Gn. Sntig mr Rivrs, t lif imrisnmnt, in bsnti, n hrgs f kidning, trtur, nd rmdittd murdr. Fiv nvl ffirs rivd lssr sntns. In July, urt in Nurmbrg, Grmny, issud n intrntinl wrrnt fr Su&ut;rz`s rrst in nntin with th murdr f Grmn silgist lisbth srmnn, wh ws th vitim f n trjudiil utin in y 1977 in rgntin.
In Jnury, in Judg Js&uut;s Gudlu Lun ltmirn td titin frm Sin fr th trditin f Rird igul vll, mmbr f th ntrius 3.3.2 tsk fr tht rtd ut f S. vll hd bn dtind in ugust 2000 t n&uut;n irrt, ftr Snish judg ltzr Grz&ut;n issud n intrntinl wrrnt fr his rrst n hrgs f gnid, trrrism, nd trtur. In Fbrury, in Frign inistr Jrg st&ntild;d uthrizd th trditin. h disin ws th first by Ltin mrin untry t ut int rti th rinil f univrsl jurisditin. gin, rgntin rssd sitin: Dfns inistr Rird L&ut;z urhy ssrtd tht n untry `shuld b rgnizd s hving th ity t b urt f ls fr disins frly dtd by rgntins.` s f tbr, vll rmind in ustdy in i witing th rsults f judiil l ginst his trditin.

Unitd Stts
In rsns t rqusts by rgntin humn rights grus nd judgs in ur nd rgntin, thn-Srtry f Stt dlin lbright rmisd in Nvmbr 2000 t dlssify Stt Drtmnt dumnts n `disrns,` th thft f bbis, nd rtin ndr. It ws undrstd tht, unlik th lbrtd hil rvltins in 2000, th rls wuld nt inlud ntrl Intllign gny r Dfns Drtmnt fils. h dumnts wr still witd t th nd f tbr 2001.
In ugust, rgntin Judg Rdlf nib snt lttr rgtry t th Stt Drtmnt rqusting dsitin by frmr Srtry f Stt nry issingr t id th judg`s invstigtin f rtin ndr. In dditin, Frnh judg Rgr L Lir rqustd issingr`s rtin with judiil inquiris int th `disrn` in rgntin f Frnh ntinls. lthugh d-lssifid dumnts shwd tht issingr ws infrmd but rtin ndr, h did nt ntribut ny infrmtin t th Frnh r rgntin urts. h Wshingtn ims n ugust 1 qutd n unnmd Whit us sur s sying tht th urts` dmnds wr `unjust nd ridiulus.`

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