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IRAQ AND IRAQI KURDISTAN
IRAQ AND IRAQI KURDISTAN
umn Rights Wth Wrld Rrt 1998

IRQ ND IRQI URDISN
umn Rights Dvlmnts
h gvrnmnt f Irq ntinud t ngg in brd rng f grss humn rights buss, inluding mss rrsts, summry utins, trjudiil utins with n rtns f du rss, nd `disrns.` rmd urdish litil rtis nd Irqi surity frs ntinud t b imlitd in buss in th rtins f nrthrn Irq undr urdish ntrl. In y, urky lunhd mjr militry mign ginst bss f th Wrkrs rty f urdistn (, s htr n urky) in nrthrn Irq, dding t th lrg numbrs disld by nging fighting mng rmd urdish litil rtis in tht rgin. Irnin irstriks ginst n Irqi-bsd Irnin sitin gru rrtdly rsultd in ivilin injuris.
h Unitd Ntins mintind its nmi sntins ginst Irq, nw in thir ighth yr. h imlmnttin f U.N. Rslutin 986 llwd Irq t sll limitd munts f il nd us th rvnus t urhs gds t mt humnitrin nds. hs gds bgn rriving in rh, but mlnutritin nd shrtgs f mdiins nd sr rts fr snitry infrstrutur ntinud t us hrdshi mng th Irqi l.
umn Rights Dvlmnts in Gvrnmnt-ntrlld Irq
sitin grus in il rrtd mss rrsts nd summry utins, mny in njuntin with th Dmbr 12, 1996 ttmtd ssssintin f rsidnt Sddm ussin`s sn Udy. Fr ml, th hrn-bsd Surm unil fr th Islmi Rvlutin in Irq (SIRI) nd th mmn-bsd Irqi Ntinl rd (IN) bth rrtd rrsts f btwn 600 nd 2000 l in th rid immditly ftr th ssssintin ttmt. h Lndn-bsd Wrkr mmunist rty f Irq rrtd mss utins during Fbrury nd rh f 250 risnrs with lif sntns r susndd dth sntns t bu Ghrib risn. hs nd similr rrts wr diffiult t vrify du t Irq`s tight ntrls n trvl, fr rssin nd ntts with frignrs ( s blw).
rss frdm nd frdm f rssin nd blif rmind svrly nstrind. Irq`s min mdi utlts wr gvrnmnt-wnd, nd frign nwsrs nd mgzins wr bnnd. In ril th gvrnmnt inrsd th unishmnts fr wnrshi f stllit dishs, whih hv bn bnnd sin 1994. h nw nltis rrtdly inludd th nfistin f ll hushld furnitur, 1 millin dinr fin (rimtly U.S. $660 t blk mrkt rts), nd imrisnmnt. s in rvius yrs, th gvrnmnt intrfrd with Shi` rligius bsrvns in rbl. In Jun Irqi frs st u rdblks utsid th ity, turning bk sm Shi` ilgrims mking th nnul wlk t th tmb f Imm usyn. Sm Shi` sitin grus ls rrtd lshs btwn ilgrims nd surity frs rsulting in mny rrsts.
Dsit rtd inquiris by th U.N. Wrking Gru n nfrd r Invluntry Disrns, th Irqi gvrnmnt fild t lrify th ft f vr 16,000 individuls rrtd `disrd` in Irq. hs ss r in dditin t ths f vr 600 rsns rrtd `disrd` during th Irqi invsin f uwit.
urdish nd urkmn fmilis rrtdly ntinud t b frd t lv th nmilly nd strtgilly imrtnt irkuk nd hnqin rs s rt f wht bsrvrs hv dsribd s liy f rbiztin in ths rs. It is imssibl t vrify t numbrs, but U.N. surs invlvd in fd distributin in nrthrn Irq sid t lst 500 fmilis disld frm thir hms during th first si mnths f 1997 hd rgistrd in rs undr thir survisin. hs disld suffrd dlys in btining rtins, bus thy hd t rrgistr in nw distrit. Sm wr rrtdly unwilling t d fr fr f undrmining thir lim t rsidn in thir hm distrits.
h U.N. Surity unil kt in l nmi sntins ginst Irq, whih wr riginlly imsd in rsns t Irq`s 1990 invsin f uwit. h sntins blk ll Irqi rts, frz Irqi ssts brd, nd thrby nstrin Irq`s bility t y fr gds t mt th ultin`s bsi nds, whih r td n humnitrin grunds frm th rhibitin f rts t Irq. h sntins hv ntributd sin 1990 t mssiv ubli hlth risis mrkd by mlnutritin nd inrsing lvls f infnt mrtlity. Rslutin 687 (1991) nditind th lifting f this mbrg n dtrmintin by th Surity unil tht th Irqi gvrnmnt hd mlid with dmnds md in tht rslutin, inluding th dstrutin f its hmil, bilgil, nd nulr wns rgrms nd th ymnt f rrtins t uwit. In lt tbr Irq rdrd U.S. mmbrs f th U.N. Sil mmissin`s rms instin tm t lv th untry, nd brrd thr U.S. tm mmbrs frm ntring Irq.
Surity unil rslutin 986 (1995) llwd th sl f U.S.$2 billin in il during 180-dy rid, but imlmnttin did nt bgin until Dmbr 1996. Rslutin 986 llwd Irq t us $1.3 billin f th il rds t urhs humnitrin sulis, inluding $260 millin in sulis fr urdish-ntrlld nrthrn Irq, whih ws dministrd srtly. lthugh th sl f Irqi il rdd rltivly smthly, th urhs nd distributin insid Irq f th humnitrin gds wr dlyd by disuts vr distributin lns, mnitring, nd rssing f ntrts. h first shimnts did nt bgin t rh Irq until rh nd th first shimnt f mdil sulis did nt rriv until y. Irq susnd il rts frm mid-Jun t mid-ugust in rtst f th nging dlys. h Irqi gvrnmnt inrsd rtin munts fr sm fdstuffs ftr th rrivl f fd shimnts. wvr, with nly smll numbr f U.N. mnitrs llwd int Irq it ws diffiult t dtrmin if distributin ws quitbl, nd whthr th quntitis f humnitrin sulis rhing th Irqi l wr suffiint t rdu signifint hlth imrvmnts. ftr wk-lng visit t Irq in y, Ysushi kshi, th hd f th U.N. Drtmnt f umnitrin ffirs, sid tht h nd his tm f rts sw `lr vidn f rviling humnitrin suffring whih is unmistkbl.` Rslutin 986 ws rnwd fr n dditinl si-mnth rid in Jun 1997.
In Stmbr Irnin lns bmbd bss f th l`s jhdin rgniztin, n Irnin sitin gru bsd in Irq. h gru rrtd tht bmbs dstryd jhdin buildings in ut nd Jlul in suthrn Irq, nd injurd ivilins in rsidntil rs f Jlul.
umn Rights Dvlmnts in Irqi urdistn
Irq ntinud t sttin grund frs lng th brdr f th urdish-ntrlld rgin rtd in th nrth f th untry. h rgin ws ltd within th `n-fly zn` imsd n Irq in th ftrmth f th Gulf Wr nd Irq`s brutl surssin f n urising by urds nd Shiits in rh 1991. h zn`s irs ws lid by th U.S. nd th U.. frm urkish bss. Irqi militry frs brifly rturnd t th rgin in 1996 t th invittin f urdish Dmrti rty (D) frs in fighting ginst rivl triti Unin f urdistn (U) frs nd thy rrtdly nggd in rbitrry rrsts nd utins f dzns f nnts f th Irqi gvrnmnt nd th D t tht tim. lthugh Irq quikly withdrw its unifrmd frs ftr th 1996 invsin, it is rrtd t hv signifintly ndd its surity rsn in rs undr D ntrl, nd in lt 1996 th U.S. ndutd mss vutin f urdish nd Irqi rsnnl wh hd bn mlyd by th U.S. r U.S. fundd humnitrin gnis bus f frfr thir sfty. In Jnury Irq nnund mnth-lng mnsty fr `Irqis wh mmittd th rim f giving infrmtin r mmuniting with frign sids,`whih my hv bn intndd t ly t th thusnds wh hd bn in ntt with frignrs rir t ugust 1996. In rvius gvrnmnt mnstis individuls wh turnd thmslvs in wr lttr rrstd nd in sm ss utd.
Dsit nging ffrts by th U.S., urky nd Irn t brkr s-fir, fighting mng rivl urdish litil rtis ntinud thrughut th yr, with lshs btwn th D nd th U using signifint dislmnt f ivilins. th rtis hv bn imlitd in wid rry f buss, inluding rbitrry rrst f sustd litil nnts; trtur nd ill-trtmnt f dtins; vitins f surtrs f rivl rtis, nd trjudiil utins f dissidnt litil tivists. h D llgd U rsnsibility fr th ssssintin f its ffiils Sirwn Nwrli (Jnury), nd uhiddin Rhim (rh), nd th ttmtd ssssintin f D gvrnr f Irbil Frnis riri (Fbrury). h U dnid th hrgs, nd llgd th D rbitrrily dtind its ivilin surtrs nd indisrimintly shlld ivilin rs. In ril th tw rtis rrtdly hngd 131 risnrs f wr s rt f n grmnt signd in tbr 1996.
In y thusnds f urkish frs lunhd mjr ffnsiv ginst th Wrkrs rty f urdistn (), whih hd bss in nrthrn Irq. urky hd lunhd similr invsins in rvius yrs. h D`s frs surtd th urkish ffnsiv nd sm rrts linkd th D t utins f mmbrs nd ivilin surtrs, silly in Irbil. n Jun 15 urky nnund rtil tr withdrwl, but thn lunhd snd mjr inursin in lt Stmbr. In tbr th U llgd tht urkish ir nd rtillry surt fr D ttks n U sitins rsultd in ivilin sultis. rding t jurnlists, bth th D nd urky hv rstritd ss t th brdr rgin sin th bginning f th invsin.
. . . r intrnlly disld rsns,` f whm vr 500,000 r in nd f ssistn. ny hv bn lld frm thir hms in nrthrn Irq bus f rsumd surt fr rivl urdish rtis, whil thrs fld nrth ftr Irq lld thm frm thir hms in th irkuk nd hnqin rs ( s bv). h U.N. igh mmissin fr Rfugs` disin in Jnury t ls th trush m n th Irqi/urkish brdr urtd n gin tht m`s ultin f rimtly 14,000 urkish urdish rfugs.
h Right t nitr
N humn rights rgniztins funtind in gvrnmnt-ntrlld Irq. h ugust 1996 rturn f Irqi surity frs t rtins f nrthrn Irq undr D ntrl rsultd in th lsur f th fw smll, rdminntly urdish humn rights rgniztins tht hd funtind in nrthrn Irq, s tivists ithr fld th rgin r wr unbl t wrk nly ut f fr f rtlitin by Irqi surity gnts.
h gvrnmnt ntinud t rfus t grnt vis t th U.N. sil rrtur n Irq, nd t rjt rtd rqusts by th U.N. mmissin n umn Rights t sttin humn rights mnitrs n its trritry. Irq llwd U.N. mnitrs ss t nrthrn nd gvrnmnt-ntrlld Irq, but thy wr fw in numbrs nd thir mndt ws stritly limitd t bsrving nd rrting n th imlmnttin f Rslutin 986 (1995). Irq imsd svr nltis fr unuthrizd ntt with frignrs, dding t limt f fr tht disurgd itizns frm rrting buss t intrntinl humn rights rgniztins r frign rrtrs.
In Fbrury Irq nnund tht it ws willing t llw th Intrntinl mmitt f th Rd rss (IR) t visit litil risnrs in Irq, but s f rly Nvmbr grmnt n suh visits hd nt bn rhd.
h Rl f th
Intrntinl mmunity
urn Unin
is bing fulfilld in urdistn s wll s in Irq. wvr th mdiin sid f th ntrt hs bn dlyd signifintly,` nd th snittin infrstrutur rgrm `hs nt yt bgun,` sh sid.
In July th urn rlimnt dtd jint rslutin dmnding n immdit withdrwl f urkish trs frm nrthrn Irq nd lling un th U nd D t rslv thir diffrns in ful fshin.
Unitd Stts
h U.S., in njuntin with urky nd th U.., ntinud t li `n-fly` zn in nrthrn Irq, whil mintining similr zn in suthrn Irq in njuntin with th U.. nd Sudi rbi. Frn ndd its rtiitin in liing th nrthrn n-fly zn in Dmbr 1996. h nrthrn zn ws dsignd t rvid its rdminntly urdish ultin with rttin frm Irqi ir ttks nd t disurg Irqi grund ttks. wvr, it did nt rvnt urkish grund nd ir striks ginst bss in nrthrn Irq.
urky sulid bss fr th `n-fly` zn trls, nd th U.S. wrkd lsly with urky in ffrts t ngtit s-fir btwn th D nd th U, snding U.S. dilmts int nrthrn Irq vi urky fr mtings with D nd U ldrs. h U.S. dlind t rss rsrvtins rgrding urky`s invsin f nrthrn Irq, with Stt Drtmnt sksmn Nihls urns sying n Jun 12, `urky`s n lly, nd w hv n rsn t qustin th nd fr n inursin rss th brdr.` h U.S. did ndmn Irn`s Stmbr irstrik ginst jhdin bss in suthrn Irq, nd Stt Drtmnt sksmn Jms Rubin sid th U.S. wuld tk `whtvr tin nssry` t rvnt bth Irqi nd Irnin ntry int th n-fly zn.
h U.S. ntinud t strngly surt U.N. sntins ginst Irq nd t dny ny rsnsibility fr th humnitrin sts f th mbrg. In Stmbr Undr Srtry f Stt hms ikring dnid llgtins by Irq nd sm Surity unil mmbrs tht th U.S. ws dlying dlivry f humnitrin gds, sying `It is th Irqi rgim whih ntinus t br th rsnsibility fr th suffring f its l. It is th Irqi rgim whih ynilly uss dlys in th distributin f humnitrin gds by rfusing t sll il fr tw mnths.`
his g lst mdifid 12/02/2002 00:03:07

umn Rights Wth
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umn Rights Dvlmnts
h Irqi gvrnmnt ntinud t ngg in brd rry f humn rights viltins, inluding mss rrsts, trtur, summry utins, `disrns,` nd frd rltins. In Irqi urdistn rmd urdish litil rtis nd Irqi surity frs wr ls rsnsibl fr wid vrity f humn rights viltins, inluding th rbitrry dtntin f sustd litil nnts, trtur, nd trjudiil utins. h Unitd Ntins nmi sntins ginst Irq ntrd thir ninth yr. h Surity unil`s rslutin 1153 inrsd th munt f il Irq uld rt t mt humnitrin nds, but th ubli hlth risis fing th Irqi ultin ntinud.
umn Rights Dvlmnts in Gvrnmnt-ntrlld Irq
sitin grus in il nd th U.N. rrtd mss rrsts nd summry utins f dtins. U.N. Sil Rrtur fr Irq vn dr Stl rrtd tht in Nvmbr nd Dmbr 1997 th gvrnmnt utd mr tht 1,500 litil dtins in bu Ghrib nd Rdwniyh risns s rt f th `risn lnsing mign` fllwing visits thr by Qusy Sddm ussin, th rsidnt`s sn. ll risnrs with sntns f mr thn fiftn t twnty yrs wr rrtdly summrily utd nd sm f th bdis rturnd t fmilis wr sid t hv shwn signs f trtur. h hrn-bsd Surm unil fr Islmi Rvlutin in Irq (SIRI) rrtd mss utin f sity l in Fbrury nd limd n hundrd dtins t Rdhwniy risn wr `burid liv,` but did nt idntify ny f th llgd vitims by nm r rvid thr infrmtin t surt th hrg. h Lndn-bsd Irqi mmunist rty rrtd th utin in y f thirty-fiv Shi` risnrs, riginlly rrstd during fild urising in 1991. hs nd similr rrts uld nt b vrifid du t Irqi`s rstritin n trvl, fr rssin, nd ntts with frignrs.
N dtils wr vilbl but th ft f th rimtly 16,500 l rrtd `disrd` in th lst tn yrs, minly thni urds nd Shi`s but inluding th rimtly 600 uwitis rrtd t hv bn in Irqi ustdy but ununtd fr sin th 1991 Gulf Wr. lthugh th Irqi gvrnmnt limd tht it hd stblishd mmitt t dl with th issu, littl infrmtin ws vilbl but its tivitis nd Irq did nt llw th U.N. Wrking Gru n nfrd r Invluntry Disrns t visit th untry.
h rrssin f th suthrn Shi` ultin ntinud. hrn-bsd SIRI rrtd gvrnmnt mign f hus burning intndd t surss rsistn in th suthrn mrshs. w Shi` lris, n n Irnin, wr killd in ril nd Jun. h Irnin, ytllh li l-Ghrvi, hd n tnsiv fllwing in th suthrn rgin, nd hd bn thrtnd by gvrnmnt ffiils in th st. h gvrnmnt ndutd n ubli invstigtin nd rhibitd funrl rssin r ny ubli murning.
Frdm f th rss nd rssin wr surssd. Irq`s mjr mdi utlts, inluding ntinl tlvisin, rdi, nd th min nwsrs wr gvrnmnt wnd nd rivt mdi ws subjtd t strit ntrl nd svr nltis. Dwud l-Frhn, rminnt jurnlist, ws rrstd in ugust nd dtind fr tw mnths ftr writing lumns tht hintd t gvrnmnt rrutin. st frign ublitins nd th wnrshi f stllit dishs wr bnnd.
h U.N. Surity unil Rslutin 687 (1991) sustind th nmi sntins ginst Irq, nw in thir ninth yr fllwing Irq`s 1990 invsin f uwit. Sntins rmind in th f f Irq`s rfusl t mly with nditins fr thir lifting md in th rslutin, inluding th dstrutin f its hmil, bilgil, nd nulr wns rgrm nd llwing unbstrud invstigtins f ssibl wns sits. In Stmbr th Surity unil`s rslutin 1194 rsndd t Irq`s susnsin f rtin with th Unitd Ntins Sil mmissin nd Intrntinl tmi nrgy gny wn`s instrs by rmving th ridi sity dy rviw f Irqi mlin with U.N. nditins fr th lifting f sntins, rndring thm fftivly indfinit. h sntins ntributd t mssiv ubli hlth risis, mrkd by mlnutritin, inrsing lvls f infnt mrtlity, nd th rmrgn f rditd disss.
h rvl rss fr humnitrin ntrts undr rslutin 986 (1995), whih llwd th nnul sl f $4 billin f il fr th urhs f fd sulis, ntinud t b rblmti, with th Irqi gvrnmnt mintining its sitin t U.N. nditins. In Stmbr, th utiv dirtr f th U.N. ffi f th Irq rgrm, nn Srn, rrtd tht th lri lvl f fdstuffs r dy ws 2,000, u frm 1,300 t 1,400 lris r rsn whn th nhnd distributin rgrm strtd in 1995. Dnis llidy, th U.N. rlif rdintr fr Irq, rsignd in July nd md sttmnts highly ritil f th lng-trm sntins liy. In Stmbr, t nws nfrn in th U.S., llidy sid h flt unhy tht th U.N. ws rsnsibl fr imlmnting trd sntins t th sm tim it rtd humnitrin rgrmm, nd tht th imsitin f sntins ds nt imt n gvrnn fftivly nd instd it dmgs th innnt l f th untry.`
In Fbrury th Surity unil ssd rslutin 1153, llwing Irq t rt $5.26 billin in il vry si mnths, u frm th rvius $2 billin undr th riginl `il-fr-fd` rslutin 986 (1995). wvr, Irqi il filds, lrdy drlit nd dmgd during th Gulf Wr, rrtdly uld nt rdu mr thn $3 billin f il during 180-dy rid. In lt Jun th Surity unil uthrizd Irq t imrt th rts nd quimnt ndd t inrs its rts t mt th $5.26 billin trgt. gru f U.N.-snsrd il rts survyd Irqi il filds during this tim nd rrtd tht vn if th sr rts wr rdrd immditly, Irq wuld nt b bl t inrs its rt ity until Dmbr 1998, nd nly thn t $3.9 billin vry si mnths. Irq hd nt rivd ny f th sr rts rquird by Stmbr. h lw ri f il mundd Irq`s diffiulty in inrsing its rt rvnus.
h limitd numbr f U.N. mnitrs llwd int th untry, s wll s infrstruturl rblms suh s ful shrtgs, md it diffiult fr mnitrs t dtrmin if distributin f humnitrin sulis ws quitbl. In sm instns, th gvrnmnt usd rtins s tl f litil lvrg un th ultin. l itizns wr rquird t ttnd `th rty `trining ntrs` r frg thir fd rtins; n U.N. ffiil dsribd th urs f th ntrs s rting `bttlins f fightrs.` In th suthrn mrshs thusnds f l wr rrtdly dnid rtins fr llgd rtin with th sitin.
UNIF rrtd in tbr 1997 tht n millin hildrn wr hrnilly mlnurishd nd tht th dth rt f hildrn undr fiv in 1996 ws ight tims grtr thn bfr th Gulf Wr. `Wht w r sing is drmti dtrirtin in th nutritinl wll-bing f Irqi hildrn sin 1991,` sid hili ffink, UNIF rrsnttiv in ghdd. `nd wht nrns us nw is tht thr is n sign f ny imrvmnt sin Surity unil rslutin 986 m int fr.` In Stmbr, frmr U.N. rdintr Dnis llidy bsrvd tht `4,000 t 5,000 hildrn dying unnssrily vry mnth du t th imt f sntins bus f th brkdwn f wtr nd snittin, indqut dit nd th bd intrnl hlth situtin.`
rding t mnsty Intrntinl th gvrnmnt`s `rbiztin` liy in th il-rih rvin f irkuk ntinud, s 1,468 urdish fmilis wr lld t th urdish-ntrlld rgin in th nrth btwn 15 ril nd Jun. numbr f rltivs f th trgtd fmilis wr rntly dtind in rrtin fr th ulsin nd th fd rtining tikts s wll s rrtis f th trgt fmilis wr rrtdly nfistd by th Irqi uthritis.
umn Rights Dvlmnts in Irqi urdistn
Irqi urdistn rmind undr th ntrl f th tw min litil ftins, th triti Unin f urdistn (U), ld by Jll lbni, nd th urdistn Dmrti rty, (D) hdd by sud rzni. h U-D rivlry nd nflit inrsingly hbbld th urdish-ntrlld rgin, whih ws ls wrkd by frqunt urkish militry inursins trgting th bss f Wrkrs rty f urdistn (), in nrthrn Irq. h nrthrn irs ws trlld by th U.S. nd th U.. s rt f th `n-fly zn` stblishd ftr th Gulf Wr.
In Nvmbr, undtrrd by th U.S. lid n-fly zn, 2,000 urkish trs lunhd n ttk ginst th , in D-ntrlld rs killing vr 1,200 l nd disling thusnds f ivilins frm thir hms. th Irq nd th U llgd tht urky drd nlm bmbs in indisrimintiv ttks n U rs during th ffnsiv, rsulting in ivilin sultis. h urkish rmy ntinud t ttk th rgin t will during 1998.
h U-D fighting nd urkish militry ffnsivs rsultd in signifint dislmnt f ivilins, ggrvting th rgin`s hrni humnitrin risis. In n mnth ln t th nd f 1997, 23,000 urds fld frm th `sf-hvn` int urky. ny thni urds wr lld frm thir hms bus f rsumd surt fr n rty r th thr r disld frm gvrnmnt-ntrlld Irq du t th gvrnmnt`s `rbiztin` liis. In ugust, institutins blnging t th urkmn minrity in Irbil, inluding NG nd litil rty ffis, wr ttkd by D fightrs. urkmn grus llg tht ths ttks wr rt f wht thy dsrib s `thni-lnsing` dirtd ginst this minrity by th D. Rltins btwn th urkmns nd th D wr rrtd t imrv ftr th D rmittd urkmn institutins t rn in rly Stmbr nd id mnstin fr dmg usd in th ttks. n Stmbr 18, rzni nd llbni mt in Wshingtn D.. nd grd t nw wr shring rrngmnts dsignd t ut n nd t ftinl fighting in th nrth.




IRQ
umn Rights Dvlmnts
h Irqi gvrnmnt hdd by rsidnt Sddm ussin ntinud t rul mst f th untry t fr th thr nrthrn gvrnrts f Duhk, rbil, nd Sulimniyy, nd sm twns nd villgs in irkuk nd Ninvh gvrnrts. hr wr frqunt rrts frm gvrnmnt-ntrlld rs f mss summry utins f risnrs. h Fbrury 1999 ssssintin f rminnt Shi` lri, rntly by r t th bhst f th gvrnmnt, rvkd tnsiv lshs btwn dmnstrtrs nd surity frs in ghdd nd mny suthrn itis, nd rrts f furthr unrst ntinud t mrg vr th fllwing mnths. Frd rltins rrtdly ntinud in vrius rs, ntbly in th il-rih rgin rund irkuk whr mny urds nd urkmns rsid, nd thr wr rrts f unitiv hus dmlitins in ghdd nd lswhr.
In th nrthrn utnmus gvrnrts, th rivlry btwn th urdistni Dmrti rty (D) nd th triti Unin f urdistn (U) ntinud. rmd lshs btwn th militis f th tw grus did nt rsum fllwing th tru ngtitd btwn th tw rtis in Wshingtn, D.., in Stmbr 1998, but rvisins fr shring brdr rvnus nd rrnging nw ltins t th rginl rlimnt wr nt imlmntd, dsit furthr high-lvl mtings btwn th grus in Wshingtn in Jnury nd gin in Jun 1999.
h Unitd Ntins Surity unil mbrg f Irqi rts nd imrts ntrd its tnth yr in ugust 1999. h stlmt vr Irq`s inmlt mlin with th disrmmnt dmnds f th Surity unil ntinud, s did shr divisin mng th fiv rmnnt mmbrs f th unil vr wht sts t tk t sur full mlin nd t ddrss th ntinuing humnitrin risis, whih ws mlitd by srius drught in th rgin. Rising il ris in th summr f 1999 finlly llwd Irq t rh nd vn d its qut f $5.2 billin in llwbl il rts undr th ndd `il-fr-fd` rgrm uthrizd by Surity unil Rslutin 1153 (1998) fr th si mnth hs nding Nvmbr 20, but ttl il rvnus undr th rgrm rmind blw th uthrizd lvl. s f Stmbr 20, ut f $9.7 billin wrth f ntrts submittd undr th rgrm sin its bginning in rly 1997, th Surity unil hd rvd $8 billin nd $5.5 billin f this, 72 rnt f it fdstuffs, hd rrivd in Irq, rding t th U.N. ffi f th Irq rgrmm. fur-night ir ssult n Irq by th Unitd Stts nd th Unitd ingdm in mid-Dmbr 1998 ws fllwd by lmst dily ttks n Irqi ir dfns instlltins in th suthrn nd nrthrn `n-fly` zns.
In Nvmbr 1998 th ntr fr umn Rights, Lndn-bsd ffilit f th sitin Irqi mmunist rty, rrtd tht n tbr 1, 1998, Irqi uthritis undr th mmnd f Gn. Sbh Frhn l-Duri utd 119 Irqis nd thr gytins in bu Ghrib risn nr ghdd. h gru rrtd tht twnty-nin f ths killd wr mmbrs f th rmd frs, nd fifty hd bn imrisnd fr thir rtiitin in th rh 1991 urisings tht fllwd th Gulf Wr. mng thm, nly th bdis f thr snir militry ffirs wr turnd vr t rltivs; mny f th thrs wr rrtdly burid in mss grv in n r ntrlld by th bu Ghrib muniility.
his mss utin ws rntly ntinutin f th `risn-lnsing` mign lunhd by th gvrnmnt yr rlir. h U.N. sil rrtur n th situtin f humn rights in Irq, in his Fbrury 1999 rrt t th U.N. nmi nd Sil unil, rrtd hving rivd th nms nd bkgrund infrmtin rgrding mr thn 200 risnrs utd btwn tbr nd Dmbr 1998, mking ttl f sm 2,500 utd sin th lst mnths f 1997. umn Rights Wth rivd rrts f mr thn 600 dtins wh wr rrtdly utd in th first fur mnths f 1999, mny by nm nd dt f utin. Nn f ths rrtd utins rd t fllw frm ny judiil du rss.
ytllh uhmmd Sdiq l-Sdr, th lding Shi` lri in Irq, ws ssssintd in Njf whil driving hm n th vning f Fbrury 19 lng with his tw sns nd hif ssistnts, ustf nd u`mml, nd thir drivr. h gvrnmnt hd rgnizd l-Sdr s grnd ytllh in 1992, but in th mnths rding his dth h hd bgun distning himslf frm th gvrnmnt in Fridy srmns nd urging l, ginst gvrnmnt wishs, t ttnd mss ryr gthrings. In rly Dmbr 1998 h rrtdly lld ff mrh t th shrin f Imm ussin in rbl ftr th gvrnmnt mssd surity frs rund th ity t nfr its bn n th mrh. rding t Irqi sitin surs, uhmmd mz l-Zubidi, mmndr f th mid-uhrts rgin, visitd ytllh l-Sdr in Jnury 1999 nd wrnd him t s his ritiisms f th gvrnmnt. h Indndnt (Lndn) rrtd tht in his lst srmn, n Fbrury 12, rrddn t smuggld ut f Irq, ytllh l-Sdr dmndd th rls f mr thn n hundrd Shi` lrgy wh hd bn dtind fllwing th rh 1991 urising nd whs ft r whrbuts hd nt bn untd fr.
h ffiil gvrnmnt nwsr l-Jumhuriyy lbld th killings s `mng th mny nsiris ginst Irq` nd n ffrt t `disturb intrnl surity,` nd quikly nnund th rrst f svrl susts. h ffiil Irq Nws gny n ril 6 issud brif nnunmnt tht tw lris, Shikh bd l-ssn bbs l-ufi nd Shikh li Qzim jmn nd tw rligius studnts, hmd ustf rdbili nd idr li ussin, hd bn hrgd with th rim nd hngd, sying tht `th gnts f sditin hd bn tirtd` but withut rviding dt f utin r ny suggstin tht judiil du rss ws bsrvd. h sttmnt ls sid th fur wr `frignrs,` insinuting tht thy wr Irnin. h ril 7 ditin f Librtin (ris), iting Shi` sitin wkly dtd Jnury 31, ntd tht n f th fur, Shikh l-ufi, hd bn rrstd in Njf n Dmbr 24 nd thus ws likly t hv bn in dtntin t th tim f ytllh l-Sdr`s ssssintin.
Fllwing th murdr f ytllh l-Sdr thr wr widsrd rrts f t lst fur dys f hvy lshs btwn rtstrs nd surity frs in hvily Shi` nighbrhds f ghdd suh s dint l-hwr nd in mjrity Shi` itis suh s rbl, Nsriyy, Njf, nd sr in whih srs wr killd nd hundrds rrstd. h gvrnmnt dnid ths unts but rfusd t llw rrtrs t visit th rs in qustin. In lt Stmbr th ntr fr umn Rights rvidd th nms f twnty-n rsns whs bdis thy sid wr mng srs disvrd in mss grv nr th suthrn twn f Zubir. rding t th gru, thy hd bn trjudiilly utd ftr bing dtind fllwing `ulr rvlt` lsting svrl dys in sr in mid-rh.
hr wr ls sitin rrts f lltiv unishmnt in th frm f unitiv hus dmlitins in Qurn in Nvmbr 1988, dint l-hwr in July, nd in villgs f th l-Rumidh trib in rly ugust. In Stmbr th U.S. gvrnmnt rlsd ril hts tht it sid substntitd sitin rrts tht gvrnmnt frs hd rzd 160 hms in th suthrn villg f l-sh n Jun 29 fllwing rtsts vr th filur t dlivr fd nd mdiin. hr wr ls svrl rrts f utins f rmy ffirs fr llgd u lts in Dmbr 1998 nd Fbrury nd rh 1999.
Frd dislmnt f thni urds, urkmns, nd thr nn-rb minritis rrtdly rsumd in th lst mnths f 1998, rtiulrly in th il-rduing rgin rund th nrthrn ity f irkuk. ffiils f th urdish Rginl Gvrnmnt (RG) in th utnmus rgin sid in Dmbr 1998 tht sm 200,000 thni urds hd bn vitd frm rs undr gvrnmnt ntrl sin 1991. ustf Ziy, th hd f litin f urkmn rtis, sid tht but 5,000 vitd urkmns wr living in `subhumn nditins in nrthrn Irq` whil 20,000 thrs hd fld illglly t ur. RG sttmnt f Nvmbr 19, 1998, limd tht vr th rvius tw mnths thirty-fiv fmilis hd bn rdrd t lv th Shrj qurtr f irkuk, whil in th uzkhurmtu distrit lnd blnging t urds nd urkmns rviusly disssssd nd fribly rltd t suthrn Irq wr lltd t rb fmilis fr husing nd frming. Jwhr Nmiq Slm, th skr f th urdistn Ntinl ssmbly in Irbil, wrt t U.N. Srtry-Gnrl fi nnn n rh 10, urging U.N. invstigtin f th `thni lnsing` liis f th Irqi gvrnmnt. h Irqi Ntinl rd, n sitin gru, rrtd in lt ril tht th gvrnmnt hd lld int th utnmus rgin 400 urdish nd urkmn fmilis frm th irkuk nighbrhds f zdi, Iskn, Imm Qsim, l-Shrj, Rhim w, Qri, glr, nd Sri hi.
h rltinshi btwn Irq nd th U.N. Surity unil ntrd nthr nfrnttinl rid in Dmbr 1998, whn Rihrd utlr, hirmn f th sil disrmmnt mmissin (UNS), rrtd t th Surity unil tht Irq hd fild t liv u t its rlir rmiss t rt. h U.S., with th surt f th U.., lunhd fur nights f missil nd irrft ttks ginst militry-rltd sits in ghdd nd lswhr. UNS instrs wr vutd rir t th ttk, nd thr hv bn n n-sit rms instins in Irq sin thn. Fllwing th ssult, Irq ir dfns systms bgn t hllng U.S. nd ritish ir trls in th s-lld `n-fly` zns bv th 36th nd blw th 32nd rllls, nd U.S. nd U.. rrtd tht thir wrlns rsndd by ttking ths sits whn rvkd. h Nw Yrk ims , iting U.S. militry surs, wrt tht s f tbr 3 sm 1,650 missils nd lsr-guidd bmbs hd bn fird ginst 385 trgts. h mmndr f Irq`s ir fr sid n Stmbr 17 tht th rids hd killd 187 ivilins nd wundd 494. In n ssitd rss stry f Stmbr 25, U.S. militry sksrsn sid tht ivilin dmg hd bn `miniml t nn-mst f wht th Irqis hv rrtd did nt hn.`
h ndd `il-fr-fd` rgrm hd sm sitiv ffts n th humnitrin risis stmming frm th Surity unil mbrg nd th Irqi gvrnmnt`s ffrts t rdirt th mbrg`s imt frm itslf nt th ivilin ultin. h vrll humnitrin situtin, hwvr, rmind lling. nn Svn, th utiv dirtr f th ffi f th Irq rgrm in th U.N. srtrit, sttd in mid-Nvmbr 1998, `h mst I n sy is tht in numbr f ky rs th rgrm hs std th situtin frm gtting wrs. In thr rs it hs slwd dwn th rt f dtrirtin.` UNIF, mring th 1984-89 nd 1994-99 rids in th gvrnmnt-ntrlld ntr nd suth f th untry, fund tht infnt mrtlity hd inrsd frm 47 t 108 dths r 1000 liv births, whil hild mrtlity (undr fiv yrs f g) hd inrsd frm 56 t 131 dths r 1,000 liv births- rid nd sustind inrs in infnt nd hild mrtlity rts tht ws virtully unrdntd. UNIF rrtd, by ntrst, dlining mrtlity rts in th nrthrn utnmus gvrnrts. h rrt f th srtry-gnrl vring th thr mnths nding n July 31 ntd tht fr th first tim th rt f hrni hild nd infnt mlnutritin hd strtd t dlin in tht rt f th untry undr gvrnmnt ntrl. h srtry-gnrl nd th `humnitrin nl` stblishd by th Surity unil (s blw) ritiizd th `hlds` ut n Irqi litins t imrt gds nd rts fr th ltri wr, wtr nd snittin, nd il rdutin strs undr `il-fr-fd.` h nl ritiizd th gvrnmnt f Irq fr `unjustifibl bttlnks` tht rvntd th dlivry f nn-fd gds, rtiulrly mdil sulis, t nd-usrs. h srtry-gnrl in svrl rrts ritiizd Irq fr filing t rdr rmmndd sil fds fr infnts, hildrn, nd nursing mthrs, fr nurging bttl fding ginst th dvi f virtully ll intrntinl ubli hlth rts, nd fr using th mdil lltin t imrt nsiv nd shistitd quimnt with limitd us rthr thn mdiins nd mdil sulis ndd by th gnrl ultin.
Dfnding umn Rights
h gvrnmnt llwd n indndnt humn rights rgniztins t rt in th gvrnrts undr its ntrl nd rvntd frign jurnlists r dilmts nd rsns wrking with humnitrin rlif rgrms frm trvling utsid f ghdd withut srt r rrting n humn rights buss.
h ntr fr umn Rights, ffilitd with th Irqi mmunist rty, rlyd infrmtin frm insid gvrnmnt-ntrlld Irq thrugh its ffi in Shqlw in th utnmus rgin nd its hdqurtrs in Lndn. thr Irqi sitin grus suh s th Surm unil fr th Islmi Rvlutin in Irq (SIRI), th Irq Ntinl rd, nd th Irq Ntinl ngrss ls rvidd infrmtin but humn rights buss by th gvrnmnt in ghdd. h brdr btwn th gvrnmnt-ntrlld nd utnmus rgins rmind rltivly rus, nd mny Irqis rrtdly trvld t th nrth nd bk with littl hindrn. wvr, th rsn f gvrnmnt intllign rtivs in th nrth nd th rfusl f nighbring untris t llw ssg t th nrth f Irq md it diffiult fr intrntinl humn rights rgniztins t invstigt buss r t vrify th infrmtin rvidd by sitin grus.
h Rl f th Intrntinl mmunity
Unitd Ntins
lriztin vr Irq liy in th Surity unil intnsifid fllwing th rsrt t militry fr by th U.S. nd th U.. in Dmbr nd ntinud U.S. insistn n mintining intt th mbrg n Irqi imrts nd rts. U.S. ffiils frquntly sribd th sitin f Frn nd Russi in rtiulr t thir rstiv mmril intrsts in Irq, but fr mny untris th humnitrin risis ws lrly ftr s wll. mbssdr ntni ntir f rtugl, thn th hir f th `661 mmitt` survising th Irq sntins, tld symsium in rly Dmbr 1998 tht th Irq sntins hd bn intndd s shrt trm msur. `W must rgniz tdy,` ntir sid, `tht, fr frm trgting th ffts f th sntins n ths wh hv th wr t did nd utting rssur n thm t fulfill th bligtins, th msurs imsd n Irq hd nvrsly biggr imt n th gnrl ultin.` Ltr in Dmbr Srtry-Gnrl fi nnn urgd th Surity unil t rviw th mbrg in sit f th UNS rrt ritil f Irq`s nnrtin with rms instrs. `I`m nt sur tht th mrhnsiv rviw is smthing tht Irq dsrvs r ds nt dsrv,` nnn sid. `I think th unil wuld wnt t knw, ftr ight yrs f sntins, whr it stnds.`
is nt rtil ltrntiv` nd rmmndd `rfusing` disrmmnt ffrts frm dttin nd dstrutin f rmining wns f mss dstrutin t rigrus rgrm f nging mnitring nd vrifitin (V) whih wuld `if nything, b mr intrusiv thn th n rtid s fr` but wuld ls l `grtr rlin...n th rvisin f infrmtin by sulirs.`
h `humnitrin nl` summrizd th rrts it hd rivd frm U.N. nd thr humnitrin gnis s inditing ` ntinuing dgrdtin f th Irqi nmy with n ut dtrirtin in th living nditins f th Irqi ultin nd svr strins n its sil fbri` nd nludd tht `lmst th whl yung hild ultin ws fftd by shift in thir nutritinl sttus twrds mlnutritin.` h nl rmmndd: rmving th iling n Irqi rts; llwing rivt intrntinl invstmnt t rhbilitt Irq`s il industry; `rrvl` f litins t imrt fd, hrmutil, mdil, griulturl, nd dutinl quimnt; `sh mnnt` by wy f ymnt fr instlltin by nd trining fr Irqi wrkrs nd rfssinls; nd sts t nd th intlltul nd infrmtinl isltin f Irqi dutrs nd hlth rfssinls in rtiulr. Sm f ths rmmndtins wr ls md in th srtry-gnrl`s tw-yr rviw f th `il-fr-fd` rgrm, rlsd n ril 28.
h nl rrts did nt rslv th divisins in th unil. Frn, Russi, nd hin surtd susnsin f sntins in rturn fr Irqi grmnt t rsum instins whil th U.. nd th Nthrlnds rsd susnding sm sts f th mbrg fllwing thr-mnth rid f full Irqi gvrnmnt rtin with rms instins. h U.S., ftr sm hsittin, ndrsd this rsl, s did mst f th tn nnrmnnt mmbrs. In rss intrviw n Stmbr 19, ns vn Snk, th U.N. humnitrin rdintr fr Irq, lld n th Surity unil t `nt ly th bttl n th bks f th ivilin ultin by ltting thm wit until th mr ml issus r rslvd` nd t `ls rmv th humnitrin disussins frm th rst in rdr t rlly nd silnt humn trgdy.` s f this writing, th rmnnt mmbrs hd nt grd n mrmis drft rslutin.
h mmissin n umn Rights, t its nnul mting, dtd rslutin n ril 23 strngly ndmning Irq`s `systmti, widsrd nd trmly grv viltins f humn rights nd f intrntinl humnitrin lw...rsulting in n ll-rvsiv rrssin nd rssin sustind by brd-bsd disrimintin nd widsrd trrr,` nd tnding th mndt f Sil Rrtur vn dr Stl.
th ls t th intrntinl mmunity nd th Unitd Ntins, in rtiulr, th Surity unil, fr th lifting f ths mbrg rvisins ffting, in rtiulr, th humnitrin situtin f th ultin f Irq. h mmitt ls rssd nrn vr rrts f frd rltin f nd disrimintin ginst urds nd thr nn-rbs in th irkuk nd hnqin rs. n rh 10 th mmitt dtd sttmnt f nrn `but ts nd liis f surssin f th fundmntl rights nd th idntity f th urds s distint l,` but did nt mntin by nm Irq r ny thr untry in whih urds r sizbl minrity.
n tbr 26, 1998, th mmitt n th Rights f th hild issud its nluding bsrvtins n Irq`s rrt, whih it hd nsidrd in Stmbr. h mmitt ntd th dvrs ffts f th Surity unil mbrg, `thrby imding th full njymnt by th Stt rty`s ultin, rtiulrly hildrn, f thir rights t survivl, hlth nd dutin,` nd rssd nrn vr th bsn f dt n dlsnt hlth, th drmti inrs in th nmi littin f hildrn, nd th inmtibility f Irq`s dministrtin f juvnil justi with th nvntin nd thr U.N. stndrds.
urn Unin
h Unitd ingdm surtd U.S. militry ttks n Irq, but mvd wy frm th U.S. sitin sing ny mdifitin f th mbrg. In lt rh th U.. rrtdly suggstd th trnsfr f rsnsibility fr rving humnitrin ntrts frm th Sntins mmitt t th ffi f th Irq rgrm in th srtrit, rsl tht ws thn inrrtd in drft rslutin drwn u with th Nthrlnds. In lsd Surity unil tlks n July 12, U.. mbssdr Jrmy Grnstk rrtdly rsd tht th unil gr un `simlifid` list f Irq`s utstnding disrmmnt tsks.
In jint rss nfrn with Frnh rsidnt Jqus hir n Jun 17, rsidnt lintn sid tht thir diffrns vr Irq `wr lrgly diffrn vr wht is likly t b mr fftiv.` hir rsndd tht t rstblish rms instins `wht w nd, t th vry lst, is t rmin th nditins f th mbrg...fr rsns tht hv t d with th vry srius dgrdtin f living nditins f th Irqi l, wh r th vitims f th situtin.... If w r nt nvind w`r ging t rh rsult...tht in ny s Irq will rfus th rslutin...it wuld b smwht intlss gstur whih wuld nt ld t ny rsults but might strin th slidrity f th Surity unil.`
h urn rlimnt, in Jnury 14 rslutin, ndmnd Irq`s nnmlin with Surity unil Rslutin 687 (1991), ndrsd th ntinud nfrmnt f th n-fly zns, urgd th unil t rt with th U.S. nd rginl stts t stblish `rst fr th rul f lw nd bsi humn nd dmrti rights in Irq,` nd dmndd `n immdit nd substntil inrs` in th il-fr-fd rgrm nd n nd t Irqi gvrnmnt bstrutin f humnitrin id. In rh 3 rslutin n `th influ f migrnts frm Irq nd th nighbring rgin,` th rlimnt ritiizd th Jnury 1998 `tin ln` f th unil f inistrs s `nt stblishd lwfully.` h rslutin rqustd th urn mmissin t submit nw rsl whih inludd n nlysis f th rsns fr inrsd migrtin, inluding humn rights viltins by Irq nd urky nd urkish militry inursins int nrthrn Irq.
Unitd Stts
is lsing his gri n wr. ut h ds hv lss t mintin gri n. is nmy ntinus t shrink. h U.N. sntins ntinu hving big imt.`
ssistnt Srtry f Stt fr Nr strn ffirs rtin Indyk sid in ngrssinl tstimny n Jun 8 tht th U.S. is `mmittd t mintining UNS sntins ginst th Irqi rgim, whil lifting th burdn f sntins ff th bks f th Irqi l thrugh th nsin nd strmlining f th il-fr-fd rgrm.` Indyk ls sttd tht `w will wrk with frs insid nd utsid Irq, s wll s Irq`s nighbrs, t hng th rgim in Irq,` nd sid tht th dministrtin ws using $8 millin in ngrssinlly rmrkd funds `t strngthn sitin litil unity, t surt th Irq wr rims inititiv, t surt humnitrin rgrms nd th dvlmnt f ivil sity, nd fr tivitis insid Irq.`
In rsns t ngrssinl ssg in tbr 1998 f th Irq Librtin t, whih uthrizd $97 millin fr U.S. surt f nnts f th Irqi gvrnmnt, th dministrtin in Jnury dsigntd svn sitin grus s ligibl t riv surt but rsistd in ubli ngrssinl rssurs t rvid militry quimnt nd trining t th grus nd intd t th Ntinl Surity unil th -uthr f Frign ffirs rtil tht dridd s `fntsy` th rjt f U.S.-snsrd insurgny.
h U.S. hs ld hlds n numbr f ntrts tht might thrwis hv bn rvd s rsult.`
n Stmbr 13, n th v f high-lvl ngtitins with thr rmnnt mmbrs f th Surity unil n mrmis drft rslutin, th Drtmnt f Stt issud rrt hrging tht th Irqi gvrnmnt br sl rsnsibility fr th untry`s humnitrin risis nd ritrting mny f th gvrnmnt`s tnsiv humn rights viltins.






umn Rights Dvlmnts (2000)
h Irqi gvrnmnt ntinud t mmit widsrd nd grss humn rights viltins, inluding rbitrry rrsts f sustd litil nnts, utins f risnrs, nd frd ulsins f urds nd urkmn frm irkuk nd thr distrits. nwn r sustd litil nnts living brd wr rrtdly frquntly trgtd nd thrtnd by Irqi gvrnmnt gnts.
Rltins btwn th tw sitin grus, th urdistn Dmrti rty (D) nd th triti Unin f urdistn (U), tht rtind ntrl vr mst f th nrthrn rvins f Duhk, rbil nd Sulimniy, rmind strind dsit 1998 U.S.-brkrd grmnt nd ntinud mditin ffrts by th U.S. In th nrth, th yr ws untutd by lshs btwn ths nd thr urdish rtis, rsulting in sultis nd sm rrsts, nd humn rights buss wr mmittd by th D, U nd sitin grus. uniil unil ltins wr hld in U-ntrlld trritry in Fbrury, th first in th rgin sin y 1992.
In th r undr Irqi gvrnmnt ntrl, ltins wr hld n rh 27 fr nw fur-yr trm Ntinl ssmbly, in whih 220 f th 250 rlimntry sts wr ntstd. h thr thirty, rsrvd fr th urdish ultin, wr filld by rsidntil ints.
nmi sntins imsd n Irq by th Unitd Ntins Surity unil in ugust 1991 rmind in fr. h Surity unil dtd rslutin nding th `il-fr-fd` rgrm nd stting u nw wns instin systm, rsing th susnsin f th sntins fr limitd rid fllwing mlin by Irq with th rvisins f th rslutin. h Irqi gvrnmnt rjtd th rsl, stting tht nn f th Surity unil`s rslutins rvidd fr suh susnsin, nd ntinud t dmnd th ttl lifting f sntins. Intrntinl nsnsus vr th sntins ws furthr rdd fllwing svrl `humnitrin flights` by Russi, Frn, Syri nd gyt, mng thrs, fllwing th rning f ghdd`s Sddm Intrntinl irrt in mid-July.
umn Rights Dvlmnts in Gvrnmnt-ntrlld Irq
Fiv Rublin Gurd ffirs wr rrtdly utd n Dmbr 29, 1999, ftr bing usd f mliity in th llgd ttmtd murdr f rsidnt Sddm ussin`s yungr sn, Qusy. mng thm wr Liut. l. Ibrhim Jssm nd t. `Umr bdul Rzzq. In ril, numbr f Rublin Gurd nd Sil Surity Frs rsnnl wr rrtdly rrstd fllwing n llgd u ttmt. Sm frty Rublin Gurd mmbrs wr rrtdly mng ths tkn t Rdhwniyy risn, inluding Stff Liut. l. shm Jssmjid nd Liut. l. Shwqi Shrishi. Furthr rrsts nd utins wr rrtd in y f fur ffirs blnging t th Sil Surity Frs, mng thm stff lnls dhim Jwd `li nd `li uhmmd Slmn.
Numrus utins f litil risnrs s wll s ths nvitd fr riminl ffns wr rntly rrid ut s rt f th gvrnmnt`s `risn lnsing` mign invlving svrl risns, inluding bu Ghrib nd Rdhwniyy. In rh, th sitin Irqi mmunist rty`s ntr fr umn Rights submittd t th U.N. sil rrtur n Irq dtils n 223 utins tht it sid wr rrid ut btwn tbr 12, 1999, nd rh 9, 2000. hy inludd twnty-si litil dtins utd n Nvmbr 26, 1999, nd furthr twnty-si utd n Jnury 27, ll in bu Ghrib risn nr ghdd. h mjrity wr Shi` uslims frm sr, l-Smw, l-Nsiriyy, l-Diwniyy, l-ill, l-`mr nd ghdd, sm f whm hd bn hld withut judiil du rss sin 1991 n susiin f hving rtiitd in th rh 1991 urising. h bdis f th vitims wr rrtdly burid in mss grvs nr th risn.
Irqi surity frs ntinud t trgt sustd surtrs f ytllh uhmmd Sdq l-Sdr, lding Shi` lri wh ws ssssintd in l-Njf in Fbrury 1999 tgthr with his tw sns. In rh, srs f Shi` uslims wh hd fld Irq rlir in th yr nd in 1999 tld umn Rights Wth tht thy hd bn rtdly intrrgtd nd in sm ss dtind nd trturd. Sm f ths dtind wr rltivs f rminnt lris r f ytllh l-Sdr`s studnts wh hd bn rrstd shrtly ftr his ssssintin. wnty-tw f ths rrstd sn ftr his murdr wr trid by sil urt tthd t th udiriyyt l-mn l-`mm (Gnrl Surity Dirtrt) in ghdd n hrgs inluding rrying ut rmd ttks n militry nd `th rty rsnnl, mmbrshi f rhibitd rgniztin, nd shltring surtrs f ytllh l-Sdr wh wr bing sught by th uthritis. n y 13, t lst si, ll studnts f rligin in l-Njf, wr sntnd t dth nd thir hms dmlishd. hy inludd Shikh Slim Jssm l-`bbudi, Shikh Nssr l-S`idi nd S`d l-Nuri. thr dfndnts rivd sntns f lif imrisnmnt r lssr trms. y tbr 2000 it ws nt knwn whthr th dth sntns hd bn rrid ut. Sm f thir rltivs wr ls rrstd nd trturd.
Irqi intllign gnts trgtd litil nnts wh hd fld Irq, thrtning nd intimidting thm r rrsting nd trturing fmily mmbrs still in th untry. n Jun 7, Stff Liut. Gn. Njib l-Slihi, frmr hif f stff f th Irqi rmy`s Sith rmurd Divisin wh hd fld t Jrdn in 1995, rivd vidt shwing th r f fml rltiv by intllign rsnnl. h r r thrt f r hs lng bn usd in Irq s unitiv msur ginst nnts t trt nfssins r infrmtin r t rssur thm int dsisting frm nti-gvrnmnt tivitis. Shrtly ftrwrds, Slihi rivd tlhn ll frm his brthr in ghdd, sking him t s ll sitin tivity. Irqi litil ils living in ur nd lswhr nsistntly rrtd bing thrtnd with th rrst r utin f thir rltivs if thy did nt rturn t Irq r bndnd sitin tivity, nd sylum skrs in Jrdn, Syri nd thr untris rrtd bing undr survilln by Irqi intllign gnts.
h gvrnmnt ntinud its frd ulsin f urds nd urkmn frm irkuk, hniqin, khmur, Sinjr, uz hrmtu, nd thr distrits s rt f its `rbiztin` rgrm. hs lld inludd individuls wh hd rfusd t sign s-lld `ntinlity rrtin` frms, intrdud by th uthritis rir t th 1997 ultin nsus, rquiring mmbrs f thni grus rsiding in ths distrits t rlinquish thir urdish r urkmn idntitis nd t rgistr ffiilly s rbs. h Irqi uthritis ls sizd thir rrty nd ssts; ths wh wr lld t rs ntrlld by urdish sitin frs wr strid f ll ssssins nd thir rtin rds wr withdrwn. smllr numbr, mstly urkmn, wr fribly lld t ntrl nd suthrn Irq, inluding l-Rmdi, nd wr llwd t tk sm f thir ssssins. In bth ss, th Irqi uthritis frquntly dtind hds f hushlds until th ulsins wr mlt. vr 800 l wr rrtdly lld btwn Jnury nd Jun, bringing th ttl numbr f ths lld sin 1991 t vr 94,000, rding t urdish sitin surs.
rss frdm nd th right t infrmtin rmind svrly rstritd. h gvrnmnt mintind tight ntrl n ll mdi utlts, inluding tlvisin, rdi, nd nwsrs, mst f whih wr stt-wnd. Stllit dishs nd mdms rmind undr bn, nd th instlltin f fsimil mhins ntinud t rquir sil rmissin. lns nnund by th uthritis in Nvmbr 1999 t llw Irqis t tun int sltd stllit tlvisin hnnls thrugh id srvi hd nt mtrilizd by tbr 2000. Intrnt srvis, rvidd slly by th inistry f ultur nd Infrmtin, bm vilbl t Irqis fr th first tim n July 27 whn n Intrnt f&ut; nd in ghdd. h uthritis nnund tht dditinl ntrs wuld b nd in thr itis in th futur. inistr f rnsrt nd mmunitins hmd urtd hlil rrtdly sid tht ustmrs uld brws ths Wb sits tht did nt vilt `th rts f th Islmi rligin` r ffnd `mrls nd this.` wvr, usrs wr rrtdly bnnd ss t unmnitrd Wb-bsd ltrni mil systms.
n Jun 28, tw stff mmbrs f th Unitd Ntins Fd nd griultur rgniztin (F) wr sht dd in ghdd nd svn thrs wundd, rrtdly by n Irqi idntifid by th uthritis s Fwd ussin idr. sid h hd rrid ut th ttk in rtst t th U.N.-imsd mbrg.
h vrll humnitrin situtin in Irq rmind dir dsit th ndd `il-fr-fd` rgrm. In his rh 10 rrt t th Surity unil n th rtin f th rgrm, U.N. Srtry-Gnrl fi nnn ntd tht `n ssiv numbr f hlds` ntinud t imd th rlif rgrm. hs inludd hlds n ntrts in th wtr nd snittin nd ltri wr strs, whih h sttd wr mjr ftr imding rgrss in th r f ubli hlth. In his mst rnt rrt f Stmbr 8 t th Surity unil, th Srtry-Gnrl ntd sm imrvmnts in this r, but sid tht `infrstruturl dgrdtin` f th wtr nd snittin str ws bing rbtd by `th bsn f ky mlmntry itms urrntly n hld nd dqut mintnn, sr rts nd stffing.` s rgrds th ltriity str, th rrt sttd tht th `ntir ltriity grid is in rrius stt nd is in imminnt dngr f llsing ltgthr.` h vrll rvisin f hlth r nd srvis ws sid t b in `st dlin.` his ssssmnt ws surtd by th findings f U.N. nd thr humnitrin gnis. In rrt ublishd in Dmbr 1999, th Intrntinl mmitt f th Rd rss (IR) sid th sntins hv hd `dvstting fft n th livs f ivilins,` nd tht whil th `il-fr-fd` rgrm hs llvitd thir light, `it hs nt hltd th lls f th hlth systm nd th dtrirtin f th wtr sulis, whih tgthr s n f th grvst thrts t th hlth nd wll-bing f th ivilin ultin.` In rrt ublishd n Stmbr 13, th F sid tht whil isting fd rtins, mbind with mrkt fd urhss, hv `hltd furthr dtrirtin in th nutritinl situtin, thy hv nt by thmslvs bn bl t rvrs this trnd.` It nludd tht ut mlnutritin mng hildrn undr fiv hd drsd nly slightly frm th 12 rnt rrdd in 1995, nd tht t lst 800,000 hildrn undr fiv wr hrnilly mlnurishd.
umn Rights Dvlmnts in Irqi urdistn
h tw mjr urdish sitin grus in Irqi urdistn, th D nd th U, rtind ntrl vr mst rs in th thr nrthrn rvins f rbil, Duhk nd Sulimniy. Dsit mditin ffrts by U.S. gvrnmnt ffiils, littl rgrss ws md twrds th imlmnttin f th rvisins f th 1998 Wshingtn rd. th sids ldgd t nrmliz rltins but ntinud t mintin srt dministrtiv, lgisltiv nd utiv struturs in rs undr thir ntrl. n tbr 22, snir ffiils frm th tw rtis grd n sris f msurs, inluding risnr hngs, th grdul rturn f intrnlly disld l t thir hms, nd rrngmnts fr th rgniztin f fr mvmnt f l nd trd btwn thir rstiv rs. st f ths msurs wr nt imlmntd. In Dmbr 1999, th U nnund tht it wuld st u srt urt f sstin t srv rs it ntrlld, nd n Fbrury 3 hld muniil unil ltins. n risnr hng tk l n rh 6, th U rlsing fiv D risnrs nd th D rlsing tn U risnrs. th sids ntinud t grnt rgulr ss t thir risns t IR rrsnttivs wh, s f ril, wr visiting n stimtd 500 dtins hld by bth rtis.
In rh, th D brdst n its tlvisin hnnl, urdistn V, sttmnts by fiv dtins in its ustdy wh hd rntly dmittd t rrying ut ts f sbtg in th rbil rgin in rvius mnths. h fiv wr llgdly mmbrs f th sitin Islmi Unity vmnt f urdistn (IU), whs ldrs dnid ths llgtins in sttmnt issud n rh 15, sying tht Irqi gvrnmnt gnts wr likly t b rsnsibl fr ths ts. hy ls sid th fiv dtins hd bn dnid judiil du rss nd thir nfssins trtd undr trtur, whih D ffiils dnid in n ril 2 sttmnt. ts f sbtg ntinud, hwvr, with tw bmb blsts urring in Jun in bth rbil nd Sulimniy mid rrts f th Irqi gvrnmnt`s dlymnt f dditinl trs t th nrthrn rgin, rntly with th im f lunhing rmd ttks n urdish-ntrlld trritry.
D surity frs ttkd th hdqurtrs f th sitin Irqi urkmn Frnt (IF) in rbil n July 11, killing bdullh dil ursit nd Fridun Fzil hmt, bth gurds. h immdit rsn fr th ttk ws unlr, but rltins btwn th tw sids hd dtrirtd sin n rlir inidnt in ril, whn svrl IF mmbrs stgd sit-in t thir hdqurtrs in rtst t wht thy sttd ws undu intrfrn by th D in th urkmn mmunity`s intrnl ffirs. h D dnid ths hrgs.
U frs rrstd mmbrs nd surtrs f th sitin Irqi Wrkrs mmunist rty (IW) in July nd ugust in n rnt ttmt t rssur thm int lving U-ntrlld rs. hirtn dmnstrtrs rtsting th utting f wtr nd ltriity sulis t IW bss wr rrstd n July 13 utsid th U`s inistry f Intrir building in Sulimniy. thrs wr rrstd in th nsuing dys, inluding thr IW ldrs wh wr rrtdly ngtiting sttlmnt with U ffiils t th tim. h rmiss f tw rgniztins ffilitd t th IW, th ntr fr th rttin f Wmn in urdistn nd th Indndnt Wmns` rgniztin, wr ridd n July 21. wlv wmn shltring t th ntr, shltr fr busd wmn, wr tkn wy nd thir whrbuts rmind unknwn. st f th IW dtins wr rlsd by lt Stmbr.
numbr f l wr killd nd ttmts md n th livs f thrs by unknwn ssilnts in rntly litilly mtivtd ts. mng thm ws Frhd Frj, litil tivist nd fundr f trd unin rgniztin, th Unin fr th Unmlyd in urdistn, wh ws killd utsid his hm in Sulimniy ity n tbr 17, 1999. In nthr inidnt, wjin l min, rsrhr t th nthrlgy drtmnt f Sulimniy Univrsity, ws sht utsid his hm in th ity n Dmbr 9, 1999. survivd nd ltr sttd tht h my hv bn trgtd bus f his utskn viws n Islm. In sh n Dmbr 23, 1999, U ldr Jll lbni ndmnd th ttk nd sttd tht `rtrtrs f trrr` wh wr trgting writrs nd rtists wuld b unishd. n July 17, rlimntrin in th urdistn Rginl Gvrnmnt (RG), smn ssn, ws sht dd by gru f rmd mn nr rbil. hd rrsntd th U rir t 1996, nd hd ltd t rmin in rbil whn U frs wr ustd frm th rginl itl tht yr nd withdrw t thir strnghlds in Sulimniy rvin. h D inititd n invstigtin int his dth, but its utm ws nt knwn by tbr 2000.
hr wr rtd militry inursins by urky`s rmd frs int nrthrn Irq in ursuit f mmbrs f th sitin urdistn Wrkrs` rty () f urky. Svrl thusnd trs wr dlyd in Stmbr nd Nvmbr 1999, with th urkish irfr trgting sitins in bth D nd U-ntrlld rs. Furthr inursins wr rrid ut in ril, y, nd ugust 2000, rsulting in n s in th killing f thirty-ight Irqi urdish ivilins. (S urky). In July, rmd lshs brk ut btwn nd D frs, lsting svrl dys nd rrtdly rsulting in frty sultis, mst f thm fightrs. In mid-Stmbr, fir fighting brk ut btwn nd U frs, whih ntinud intrmittntly fr vr tw wks in svrl rs, inluding Ql Diz, Rni, nd Zli, with srs f sultis rrtd n bth sids. h fighting ndd n tbr 4 whn th dlrd uniltrl sfir.






Irq nd Irqi urdistn

umn Rights Dvlmnts

Dfnding umn Rights

h Rl f th Intrntinl mmunity

UN RIGS DVLNS(2001)
h Irqi gvrnmnt f rsidnt Sddm ussin rtrtd widsrd nd grss humn rights viltins, inluding rbitrry rrsts f sustd litil nnts nd thir rltivs, rutin trtur nd ill-trtmnt f dtins, summry utin f militry rsnnl nd litil dtins s rt f `risn lnsing` mign, nd frd ulsins f urds nd urkmn frm irkuk nd thr rgins.
h urdistn Dmrti rty (D) nd th triti Unin f urdistn (U), wh ntrlld mst f th nrthrly Duhk, rbil, nd Sulimniy rvins, sught t imlmnt 1998 U.S.-brkrd sttlmnt but did nt gr t st u unifid dministrtin fr th rgin. hr wr rtd thrts f militry tin nd inursins int urdish-ntrlld rs by Irqi gvrnmnt trs, nd by urkish gvrnmnt trs ursuing mmbrs f th sitin urdistn Wrkrs` rty (). umn rights buss wr mmittd by urdish sitin grus, inluding in th ntt f lshs btwn U frs nd ths f Islmist grus.
nmi sntins imsd n Irq by th Unitd Ntins Surity unil in 1991 rmind in fr dsit th ntinud rsin f th intrntinl nsnsus n th issu. h gvrnmnt ntinud t dny U.N. wns instrs ss t Irq. ffrts by th Unitd Stts (U.S.) nd th Unitd ingdm (U..) t rstrutur th sntins by rmving rstritins n ivilin imrts yt tightning ntrls n militry gds nd il rvnu fild du t thr Surity unil mmbrs` sitin. h Irqi gvrnmnt ls sd th rsl nd tmrrily susndd its il rts in rtst.

UN RIGS DVLNS IN GVRNN-NRLLD IRQ
h Irqi uthritis rrtdly rrid ut numrus utins f militry rsnnl sustd f invlvmnt in llgd u ttmts. hs inludd, in rh, thr ir fr ffirs, inluding Fwzi md l-`Ubidi nd Fris hmd l-`lwn, nd n rmy mjr-gnrl, rq l-S`dun. In July, th uthritis utd tw mr ir fr ffirs in irkuk, inluding dhim hirllh l-Dulimi, nd t lst fiv Rublin Gurd ffirs, inluding Stff lnl Smi bd l-Ghffur l-lusi. thr utins f militry rsnnl wr rrid ut in ugust nd tbr t bu Ghrib risn nr ghdd; th vitims inludd frmr rmy lnls `bd l-Slm di l-ikriti nd Slh nn` Slmn l-ikriti, dtind sin 1995 nd utd n tbr 8. thr snir militry rsnnl wr rrtdly rrstd in ghdd in lt tbr.
h uthritis ls utd numrus inmts t bu Ghrib, l-ksib, nd thr risns, inluding lng trm untrid litil dtins nd nvitd risnrs. Sm wr rntly trturd first. Rltivs rrtd tht th bdy f `bd l-Whd l-Rif`i, hngd in rh ftr tw yrs in dtntin withut tril, br mrks f trtur whn thy lltd it n rh 26 frm th Gnrl Surity Dirtrt in ghdd. hirtn bu Ghrib dtins, inluding studnts, wr utd in ugust, nd twnty-n risnrs nvitd by sil urts f killing svrl surity gnts wr utd in tbr, inluding Flh hmd ussin, uhsin Yssin dhim, nd qr Jssim `li.
In Nvmbr 2000, frmr Irqi intllign ffir wh fld t Jrdn in Jun 1999 dislsd th istn f gvrnmnt `risn lnsing` mign. tin hlid Sjd l-Jnbi, n intllign rtiv frm 1979 t 1999, sid rh 15, 1998 dirtiv frm th ffi f th rsidnt hd uthrizd th stblishmnt f survisry mmitts t `ln u Irqi risns` nd tht h hd bn intd t th bu Ghrib risn mmitt. h `lnsing` rtins, h sid, rsultd in th utin f sm 2,000 dtins nd sntnd risnrs n n dy, ril 27, 1998. l-Jnbi ls rrtd tht t lst fifty uwitis dtind by Irq sin th 1991 Gulf wr wr still bing hld t th Gnrl Invstigtiv uru in ghdd btwn ril nd July 1998. dtr wh wrkd t bu Ghrib risn hsitl bfr fling t Jrdn in July ls rrtd rgulr mss utins f risnrs. hr Fkhr hshn sid mst f ths utd wr litil dtins idntifid by sril numbr rthr thn by nm, whs bdis wr rmvd fr buril in sil vhils, nd tht h hd mst rntly witnssd thirty-fur suh utins n July 8. rrtd t tht risn uthritis frd dtrs t injt sm dtins with isn nd thn issu dth rtifits ttributing thir dths t nturl uss.
rliminry survy rrid ut in nrthrn Irq by th U.N. ntr fr umn Sttlmnts (bitt) stimtd th numbr f intrnlly disld rsns t 805,000 by th nd f tbr 2000, mrising 23 rnt f th ultin. n Dmbr 4, th utiv dirtr f th U.N. ffi f th Irq rgrm (I) tld th Surity unil h ws `grtly nrnd with th inrsing numbr f intrnlly disld rsns,` whs living nditins in sm ss wr `bminbl.` mjr ftr in th rising numbr f intrnlly disld rsns ws th gvrnmnt`s ntinud ulsin f urds nd urkmn frm thir hms in irkuk, uz hrmtu, hniqin, nd thr distrits s rt f its `rbiztin` rgrm. st wr lld t rs ntrlld by urdish sitin frs nd smllr numbr t ntrl nd suthrn Irq. rding t U ffiils, ths lld btwn Jnury 1991 nd Dmbr 2000 nd rsttld in rs undr its ntrl ttld 93,888, whil sm 25,000 thrs lld during th sm rid wr rsttld in D-ntrlld rs. Srs mr wr rrtdly lld btwn Jnury nd rh, rtiulrly frm th uz hrmtu r. In ugust nd Stmbr, urdish sitin surs sid th gvrnmnt ws intnsifying th rt f rsttlmnt f rb fmilis in rs frm whih urds nd urkmn hd bn lld, inluding th Liln, Shwn, nd Qr njir distrits f irkuk. h gvrnmnt ls gv rbs titl dds f rrty wnd by ths lld, built nw husing in villgs rund ltun ri nd uz hrmtu t mmdt mr rb fmilis, nd substitutd rbi fr urdish, urkmn, nd ssyrin l nms. n Stmbr 6, rding t th gvrnmnt rss, Irq`s Rvlutin mmnd unil issud dr 199, nbling Irqis gd ightn r vr t hng thir ffiil thni idntity by lying t rgistr s rbs.
riminl rdings ginst Fwd ussin idr, rrstd in lt Jun 2000 fllwing th killing f tw stff mmbrs f th U.N. Fd nd griultur rgniztin (F) in ghdd, nd th wunding f ight thrs, rmind innlusiv. (S umn Rights Wth Wrld Rrt 2001.) n Dmbr 5, 2000, th Surity unil lld n Irq t mlt its invstigtin int th inidnt, but n rh 2, U.N. Srtry-Gnrl fi nnn sid h hd nt bn rvidd with th gvrnmnt`s rrt int th invstigtin. n y 18, h infrmd th Surity unil tht n y 14, `th riminl urt stnd, yt gin, fr th svnth tim, its rdings in th tril f th usd, t 28 y.` y tbr, n furthr infrmtin ws vilbl n th s.
In his rh 2 rrt t th Surity unil n th imlmnttin f th `il-fr-fd` rgrm, th U.N. srtry-gnrl sid tht inrsd rvnus ld th Irqi gvrnmnt `in sitin t rdu urrnt mlnutritin lvls nd imrv th hlth sttus f th Irqi l.` In his y 18 rrt, th srtry-gnrl rssd rgrt tht n rgrss hd bn md n rrngmnts fr ll rurmnt f gds nd srvis nd th rvisin f sh mnnt, rvidd fr undr rslutin 1284 (1999). ntd tht n `inrsing rng f quimnt is bing imrtd undr th rgrm, with insuffiint ll rsurs vilbl t undrtk instlltin, trining nd mintnn.` In his Stmbr 28 rrt, th srtry-gnrl ritrtd his nrn but th inrs in th `numbr f hlds ld n litins, th ttl vlu f whih ws $4.05 billin s t 14 Stmbr 2001,` imding th imlmnttin f th `il-fr-fd` rgrm. urgd th Surity unil nd th Sntins mmitt t furthr strmlin rvl rdurs, nd `llw grtr ltitud s tht widr vrity f mdiin, hlth sulis, fdstuffs, s wll s mtrils nd sulis fr ssntil ivilin nds n b rurd nd sulid mst ditiusly.` ls sid tht th rgrm hd bn dvrsly fftd by th `substntil rdutin in rvnus rivd frm il rts` drsd r ttlly susndd by Irq, nd wll s by th `inrdint dlys` nd rfusls in th issun f viss by Irq t U.N. rsnnl.
nrn but th vrll humnitrin situtin in Irq ws vid by U.N. nd thr humnitrin gnis. In Dmbr 2000 rrt, th Intrntinl mmitt f th Rd rss (IR) sid tht `dsit th inrsd vilbility f fd, mdiins nd mdil quimnt, fllwing ris in il ris nd th tnsin f th `il-fr-fd` rgrmm, suffring rmind widsrd.` Infrmtin rlsd by th Unitd Ntins hildrn`s Fund (UNIF) n July 11 wrnd tht `n in fiv hildrn in th suth nd ntr f Irq rmin s mlnurishd tht thy nd sil thruti fding,` nd tht hild siknss rts rmin `lrmingly high.` h rgniztin lld fr sdy imlmnttin f th rvisins f rslutin 1330, whih hd rmrkd fiv r nt f il rvnus fr `th mst vulnrbl grus in Irq.`

UN RIGS DVLNS IN IRQI URDISN
st f th thr nrthrly Duhk, rbil, nd Sulimniy rvins rmind undr th ntrl f th D nd th U, whih mintind srt dministrtiv, lgisltiv, nd utiv struturs in rs undr thir ntrl. ffrts t imlmnt th 1998 Wshingtn rd bgn ftr mtings btwn D ldr s`ud rzni nd U ldr Jll lbni in Jnury, lding t ngtitins vr th grdul nrmliztin f rltins btwn th tw sids. y Nvmbr, thy hd nt grd n unifid dministrtin fr th rgin; rlir, th D hld muniil ltins in rs undr its ntrl n y 26. wvr, th tw sids sd rstritins n th fr mvmnt f l nd trd btwn thir rstiv rs nd drsd thir militry rsn lng th sfir lin. hy ls filittd th grdul hng f l intrnlly disld sin th 1996 lshs, with sm 1,300 fmilis rturning t thir hms in rbil, Duhk, nd Sulimniy btwn Jun nd tbr. h tw sids ls inrsd rtin n surity mttrs nd risnr hngs. th sids ntinud t grnt ss t thir risns t th IR, whih rrtd tht during 2000 it visitd 792 dtins hld `fr surity rsns r in nntin with th intr-urdish fighting` in thirty-tw ls f dtntin.
rsidnt ussin rsd th rning f ngtitins btwn th gvrnmnt nd urdish litil rtis n July 15, but in jint sttmnt n July 27, th D nd U st rnditins: thy dmndd n nd t mss drttins f urds nd urkmn, lrifitin f th ft f dtins in Irqi gvrnmnt ustdy nd missing rsns, nd tn by th Irqi gvrnmnt f fdrlism s th bsis f futur rltins btwn th urdish rgin nd ghdd. h gvrnmnt rjtd ths dmnds in ugust.
Irqi trs wr dlyd t th nrthrn rgin n svrl sins, rntly with th im f lunhing rmd ttks n urdish-ntrlld trritry. In mid-Jun, th gvrnmnt dlyd tnks, rmrd rsnnl rrirs, rtillry nd infntry units suth f rbil, iniding with ffrts by th U.. nd th U.S. t rstrutur th nmi mbrg imsd n Irq nd t ims `smrt sntins.` Gvrnmnt trs lshd with U frs in th ifri rgin n Stmbr 9, nd in rly tbr thy rrtdly ntrd nd uid th villg f Sdw, suth-wst f rbil. h D sid tht rtd rtillry bmbrdmnt f sm thirty frnt-lin villgs by gvrnmnt trs hd rsultd in th dislmnt f thir inhbitnts.
hr wr t lst ight bmb ttks in rbil in thr itis btwn Nvmbr 2000 nd tbr 2001. Sm trgtd buildings usd by U.N. rsnnl nd by ll nd intrntinl nngvrnmntl rgniztins (NGs). In ugust, th D sid it hd rrstd tw mn in srt inidnts whs vhils wr rntly rrying lsivs, nd tht thy hd nfssd t wrking fr Irqi intllign. mng thm ws unisin ntinl mlyd by th U.N. wh ws ught n July 19 whil rturning frm ghdd with lsivs in his vhil. ws rlsd n July 31 nd hndd vr t un yt, U.N. humnitrin rdintr fr Irq, during his visit t Irqi urdistn.
thr bmb blsts in D-hld trritry, inluding n in rbil n ril 23 nd nthr in Zkh n tbr 15, wr rrtdly ttributd t Islmist grus bsd in th rgin, ntbly rkt l-whid l-Islmi (Islmi Unity vmnt, IU). h IU, n f thr Islmist grus whih brk wy t diffrnt tims frm th minstrm Islmi Unity vmnt in urdistn (IU) nd in Stmbr mrgd t frm Jund l-Islm (Sldirs f Gd), ws ls hld rsnsibl by th D fr th ssssintin n Fbrury 18 f Frnis riri, gvrnr f rbil nd mmbr f th D`s ntrl mmitt. ws sht dd by unidntifid ssilnts s h drv t wrk in th ity. is bdygurd ws ls killd nd his drivr wundd. h D nnund in lt rh tht it hd idntifid svrl IU mmbrs s bing rsnsibl fr th ssssintin, n f whm ws rhndd.
lshs btwn U frs nd Jund l-Islm bgn in Stmbr, shrtly ftr th gru`s ldr, bu `Ubidullh l-Shfi`i, dlrd Jihd (ly Wr) ginst sulr nd thr litil rtis in Irqi urdistn dmd t hv dvitd frm th `tru th f Islm.` ftr th Stmbr 11 ttks in th U.S., th U usd th gru f links with sm bin Ldn`s l-Qd (h s) ntwrk nd sid its mmbrs inludd rbs f vrius ntinlitis wh hd rivd militry trining in fghnistn. h U ls usd th gru f imsing n trm frm f Islm in thir strnghlds f iyr nd wl, inluding brring wmn frm mlymnt nd dutin, nd f rvnting th Nqshbndi Sufis bsd in th r frm rtiing thir rligius rits.
n Stmbr 22, Jund l-Islm bdutd dtr, Rbwr Syyid `Umr, frm his surgry in lbj nd dtind him fr twnty dys in iyr nr th brdr with Irn. n Stmbr 23, thirty-svn U fightrs wr killd by Jund l-Islm in th villg f hli m n th Sulimniy-lbj rd. Svrl did in n mbush, but th mjrity ws rrtdly killd ftr surrndr. htgrhs f th vitims md vilbl by th U shwd tht sm f th risnrs` thrts hd bn slit nd sm f th dd hd bn bhdd r mutiltd, inluding by hving thir sul rgns svrd. During th nsuing lshs, n stimtd n hundrd U fightrs nd sm frty Jund l-Islm fightrs wr killd. h U rgind ntrl f lbj nd its viinity by Stmbr 26, rrsting sustd surtrs r mmbrs f Jund l-Islm, nd during tbr th fighting tndd t Shrzur, wrmn, nd lswhr. t lst thirty-ight Jund l-Islm fightrs wr rrtdly killd in ths lshs, whil sm twnty-fur thrs wr turd r surrndrd. thr urdish litil rtis, inluding th D, ffrd militry ssistn t th U. n tbr 11, th U dlrd sfir nd n tbr 25, it issud thirty-dy mnsty fr Jund l-Islm fightrs. h mnsty did nt vr ths rsnsibl fr th ssssintin f Frnis riri, r ths invlvd in th killing f th thirty-svn U fightrs n Stmbr 23. h U ls sid tht frign ntinls mng thm wuld nt b rmittd t rmin in Irqi urdistn.
urkish gvrnmnt trs lunhd rtd militry inursins int nrthrn Irq in ursuit f mmbrs. In Dmbr 2000, urky dlyd svrl thusnd trs nr th Irn-Irq brdr, in rdr, th urkish rim ministr sid n Jnury 7, 2000, t rvid `thnil surt` t U frs tht hd bn nggd in militry rtins ginst th sin Stmbr 2000. rding t U ffiils, sm 120 nd thirty-fiv U fightrs wr killd in Dmbr 2000. h U usd th f fribly uying frty-si villgs in rs undr U ntrl. urkish trs wr ls dlyd in U-hld trritry in July nd ugust, nd in D-hld rs nr Zkh in Stmbr. rlir, in Jnury 2000, th D nd th U dtd unifid liy t l th frm Irqi urdistn.

RL F INRNINL UNIY

Unitd Ntins
h `il-fr-fd` humnitrin rlif rgrm fr Irq ws tndd fr furthr si mnths n Dmbr 5, 2000, undr Surity unil Rslutin 1330. h Sntins mmitt ws rqustd t rv lists f sulis nd quimnt in th ltriity nd husing strs fr `fst-trk` rvl rdurs nd t nd lists in thr strs. It rvd th rdutin f th lltin fr th U.N. mnstin Fund frm 30 rnt t 25 rnt, trnsfrring th dditinl funds t mt th sts f humnitrin sulis t vulnrbl grus in ntrl nd suthrn Irq. It ls llwd funds f u t 600 millin urs t b usd fr th st f instlltin nd mintnn f th il industry.
Divisins within th Surity unil n th sntins liy wr vidnt during dbt vr drft rslutin rsd by th U.. n y 22, imd t intrduing `smrt sntins` by rmving mst rstritins n Irq`s ivilin imrts whil tightning ntrls n militry gds nd il rvnu. Russi, hin, nd Frn sd th rslutin, in rt vr th list f rhibitd `dul-us` gds whih wuld rmin subjt t Surity unil srutiny. Russi intrdud its wn untr-rslutin rsing th lifting f rstritins n ivilin gds n wns instrs wr fully dlyd, whil Irq susndd its il rts n Jun 4 in rtst t th U.. rsl. n Jun 1, th `il-fr-fd` rgrm ws tndd fr n mnth undr rslutin 1352, giving th Surity unil mr tim t dbt th issu. y July 2, hwvr, n nsnsus ws rhd nd th U.. stnd indfinitly vt n its drft rslutin. h `il-fr-fd` rgrm ws rnwd fr furthr fiv mnths n July 3 undr rslutin 1360.
Wns instrs f th U.N. nitring, Vrifitin nd Instin mmissin (UNVI), ntinud t b dnid ss t Irq, with th gvrnmnt mintining its rjtin f rslutin 1284. lks hld btwn Irqi nd U.N. ffiils in Fbrury fild t rslv th ddlk vr wns instins, nd UNVI utiv hirmn ns li sid tht dumnts submittd by Irq s vidn tht it n lngr hd wns f mss dstrutin ntind `vry littl nw dt.`
h Irqi gvrnmnt ls dnid Yuli Vrntsv, th srtry-gnrl`s high-lvl rdintr fr th rturn f missing rrty nd missing rsns frm Irq t uwit, ss t th untry. In rh, Vrntsv sid Irq ws nling infrmtin but n stimtd 605 uwiti nd third-untry ntinls ununtd fr sin Fbrury 1991. n July 3, Frign inistry ffiils rjtd s `fls fts` infrmtin submittd by Vrntsv t th Surity unil n ril 20, sying tht his rl ws `rtisn nd lss thn bjtiv.` h Irqi gvrnmnt dlind t rtiit in mting f th rirtit mmissin shduld fr July 19 undr IR usis, sying its rtiitin ws nditinl n th withdrwl f th U.S. nd th U.. frm th rirtit mmissin. It ls lld n uwit t unt fr n stimtd 1,142 Irqis whih it sid rmind ununtd fr sin 1991. In ugust, th Surity unil urgd Irq t rt with Vrntsv nd with th IR t lrify th ft f ths missing.
n Fbrury 14, nn Svn, utiv dirtr f th U.N. ffi f th Irq rgrm (I), ritiizd Irq fr filing t utiliz inrsd il rvnus `t rdu urrnt mlnutritin lvls nd imrv th hlth sttus f th Irqi l,` sying tht th sums lltd fr this in th gvrnmnt`s distributin ln wr nt `mmnsurt` with th rblm. In sttmnt t th Surity unil n rh 8, h rssd `grv nrn vr th untbly high lvl f hlds ld n litins,` inluding `sm ssntil itms rquird fr ky strs suh s ltriity.` urgd `ll rtis nrnd, inluding th Gvrnmnt f Irq, t dlitiiz nd filitt th rgrm`s imlmnttin in rdr t llvit th ntinud suffring f th Irqi l.` In mid-ril, th I sid th Sntins mmitt hd dlyd sm 1,685 ntrts vlud t U.S. $3.44 billin.
Rltins with th U.N. dtrirtd furthr whn Frign inistry ffiil usd th I in July f finnil mismngmnt nd imrrity, nd in ugust rqustd rgulr udits f `il-fr-fd` rvnus by `indndnt, lgl nd nutrl untnts.` Irq ls usd th U.N. in July f dlibrtly dlying visit by Wrld lth rgniztin (W) rts, dding tht Svn ws `rjudid ginst Irq.` n Stmbr 5, Frign inistr Nji Sbri l-dithi nnund tht Irq hd lld th rvius dy fiv I rsnnl bsd in ghdd, llgdly fr sulying surity infrmtin t `nmy stts.` sith I mly hd bn lld n ugust 31, nd tw krs f th U.N. Irq-uwit bsrvtin issin (UNI) n ugust 22 fr llgdly vilting `stndrd rting rdurs by . . . tking htgrhs.` During Surity unil dbt n Irq n Stmbr 6, Irq`s U.N. mbssdr uhmmd l-Duri usd th U.N. f snding `sis` t Irq. U.N. ffiils dnid ths hrgs, sying tht Irq hd fild t rvid ny surting vidn, nd tht th I hd didd t `withdrw ths rsnnl fr stritly sfty rsns.` w thr UNI krs hd lft Irq in ril ftr gvrnmnt ffiils md similr mlints ginst thm. n tbr 25, Svn nnund h hd submittd dumnts t th Surity unil rviding vidn tht Irqi il stimtd t U.S. $10 millin ws smuggld in viltin f U.N. sntins. h gvrnmnt dnid th hrgs.
ight W rts visitd Irq frm ugust 27 t 31 t finliz grmnts with th gvrnmnt n rsrh t b ndutd n nn-mmunibl disss nd ngnitl mlfrmtins in th untry. In Stmbr 5 sttmnt, W nnund tht n mjr r f rsrh grd ws `study f nvirnmntl nd thr risk ftrs (inluding dltd urnium) t hlth.` h gvrnmnt sid tht inrss in nrs nd birth dfts mng Irqis wr linkd t th us f dltd urnium by llid frs during th 1991 Gulf wr, nd hd rqustd th Intrntinl tmi nrgy gny (I) nd th U.N. nvirnmnt rgrmm (UN) t sntin ft-finding visit.
In Dmbr 4, 2000 rslutin, th Gnrl ssmbly ndmnd `systmti, widsrd nd trmly grv viltins f humn rights nd f intrntinl humnitrin lw by th Gvrnmnt f Irq, rsulting in n ll-rvsiv rrssin nd rssin sustind by brd-bsd disrimintin nd widsrd trrr.` hs inludd summry nd rbitrry utins, rutin nd systmti trtur, widsrd us f th dth nlty, nd th rrssin f litil nnts nd thir fmilis. It urgd th gvrnmnt t bid by its intrntinl humn rights nd humnitrin lw bligtins, t rt with U.N. humn rights mhnisms, t imlmnt rlvnt Surity unil rslutins, nd t rt with th rirtit mmissin vr th ft f rsns ununtd fr sin th withdrwl f Irqi frs frm uwit in 1991. h rslutin ls ritrtd its ll fr th sil rrtur t b grntd ss t th untry.
In Jnury 16 rrt t th U.N. mmissin n umn Rights, th sil rrtur n Irq ndrs vrmmtis sid h ntinud t riv llgtins f humn rights viltins by th gvrnmnt. hs inludd rbitrry utins, frqunt rrsts f Shi` rligius figurs nd studnts, trtur nd ill-trtmnt f dtins, th rtrtiv litin f dth nlty lgisltin, nd th fribl ulsin f urds nd thrs frm th irkuk rgin. h rrtur sid it ws `bslutly nssry` tht h b llwd t visit Irq `t vrify th truthfulnss f th unts rivd` nd urgd th gvrnmnt t gr t this. n ril 18, th mmissin rnwd th rrtur`s mndt fr nthr yr, ndmnd ntinuing viltins nd urgd th gvrnmnt t rt with U.N. mhnisms nd grnt th sil rrtur ss t Irq. In rrt t th Gnrl ssmbly in Stmbr, th rrtur dtild dditinl infrmtin n buss ginst wmn, rligius rsutin, trtur nd trjudiil killings, nd n th humnitrin situtin in Irq. y Nvmbr, th gvrnmnt hd still nt rmittd him t visit th untry.
n ugust 16, th U.N. Submmissin n th rmtin nd rttin f umn Rights didd, withut vt, t ritrt its l t th intrntinl mmunity nd t th Surity unil fr th lifting f `th mbrg rvisins ffting th humnitrin situtin f th ultin f Irq.` It ls urgd ll gvrnmnts, inluding tht f Irq, t filitt th dlivry f fd, mdil sulis, nd thr bsi nds.

urn Unin
In y, th urn mmissin nnund n inrsd `humnitrin ssistn kg` fr Irq. It lltd ttl f 13 millin urs fr th yr thrugh th urn mmunity umnitrin ffi (), mintining th .U.`s sitin s Irq`s lrgst humnitrin id dnr. h rgrm ws intndd t fund rjts in ntrl nd suthrn Irq run by U.N. silizd gnis nd NGs in th rs f hlth, wtr nd snittin, nd sil rhbilittin.
In rslutin dtd n Nvmbr 30, 2000, n th rgrss hivd in th imlmnttin f th mmn frign nd surity liy (FS), th urn rlimnt urgd `th unil nd mbr Stts t tk th inititiv t th Unitd Ntins t rs th frmtin f n d-h Intrntinl ribunl n Irq t invstigt th rsnsibility f Sddm ussin`s rgim in rims f wr, rims ginst humnity nd rims f gnid.`
h urn rlimnt dbtd Irq n rh 1, fusing n ntinud ir striks by U.S. nd U.. frs. mmissinr fr trnl Rltins hris ttn strssd th imrtn f mintining sntins until Irq mlid with Surity unil rslutins nrning wns instins, but ntd th imrtn f rviwing vrll liy twrd Irq nd `th ssibility f rling th rsnt sntin rgim by `smrt sntins rgrm` nd thr rrit msurs,` whil nsuring tht Irq did nt dvl wns f mss dstrutin.

Unitd Stts
Srtry f Stt lin wll tstifid bfr th Intrntinl Rltins mmitt f th us f Rrsnttivs n rh 7 tht th ush dministrtin wuld rviw liy twrd th nmi mbrg n Irq, th `n-fly zns,` nd ssistn t th Irqi sitin. sid th sntins `wr strting t fll rt` nd ndd t b fusd mr lrly n rvnting Irq frm dvling wns f mss dstrutin, whil rfuting lims tht this rrsntd n `sing` f rssur n th Irqi uthritis. In y, th U.S. bkd rslutin intrdud by th U.. t Surity unil dbt n Irq, whih imd t rmving rstritins n lmst ll ivilin rts t Irq whil tightning ntrls vr rms imrts nd vr th smuggling f Irqi il thrugh its nighbring untris.
h U.S. nd th U.. ntinud t li th `n-fly zns` vr nrthrn nd suthrn Irq frm bss in urky nd Sudi rbi. In ngrssinl tstimny in rh nd y, ush dministrtin ffiils rffirmd U.S. mmitmnt t th liy, whih thy sttd ws nssry t rvnt Irq frm building u its militry frs nd frm lunhing ir ttks n th urdish ultin in th nrth nd th rb Shi` ultin in th suth. In y, th ntgn nnund tht tw U.S. militry mmndrs vrsing th `n-fly zn` rtins hd rmmndd signifint rdutin in th numbr f srtis bing flwn by U.S. nd U.. ilts whil mintining th mnitring f Irqi tr mvmnts in ths rs. h Irqi gvrnmnt sid thr l wr killd nd lvn thrs injurd ftr ir striks by U.S. nd U.. lns nr ghdd n Fbrury 16, nd tht furthr twnty-thr l wr killd nd lvn injurd s rsult f ir striks n Jun 19 vr sr fild in th ity f sul. U.S. nd U.. gvrnmnt ffiils dnid ths rrts, nd sttd tht n ir striks hd bn lunhd n Jun 19. U.S. Dfns Srtry Dnld Rumsfld sid tht ny suh inidnt `undubtdly ws th rsult f misdirtd grund fir.`
mbrs f th sitin Irqi Ntinl ngrss (IN) bgn trining in Nvmbr 2000 in th lltin f vidn fr us in wr rims trils s rt f widr rgrm sntind undr th 1998 Irq Librtin t. n Jnury 10, th lintn dministrtin rvd U.S. $12 millin in id t th IN fr th distributin f fd, mdiin, nd thr humnitrin rlif in gvrnmnt-ntrlld rs f Irq. n Jnury 30, th ush dministrtin uthrizd th IN t drw n th U.S. $4 millin rvd by ngrss in 2000 t fund sitin tivitis insid Irq, inluding th gthring f vidn n humn rights buss by th Irqi gvrnmnt. In tstimny bfr th Intrntinl Rltins mmitt f th us f Rrsnttivs n rh 29, th Stt Drtmnt sid tht th dministrtin hd `n tiv rgrm with th Irqi sitin . . . tht uld ntribut t hng f ldrshi in Irq,` nd tht vr U.S. $6.7 millin hd lrdy bn hnnld thrugh th IN nd thr grus. In mid-Jun, th Stt Drtmnt nnund it ws rlsing n dditinl U.S. $6 millin t th IN t fund th snding f individuls int Irq t gthr humn rights nd wr rims infrmtin, ublitins, nd tlvisin brdsting.
In its untry Rrts n umn Rights rtis fr 2000, rlsd in Fbrury 2001, th Stt Drtmnt ndmnd Irq`s humn rights rrd s `trmly r.` It sid tht `surity frs mmittd widsrd, srius, nd systmti humn rights buss,` nd tht th gvrnmnt ntinud t b rsnsibl fr disrns, trtur nd summry utin f sustd litil nnts, nd t subjt itizns t rbitrry rrst nd rlngd inmmunid dtntin. Irq ws ls n f nin untris nmintd by th U.S. mmissin n Intrntinl Rligius Frdm s bing `th wrld`s wrst rligius-frdm viltrs.` In its nnul Rrt n Intrntinl Rligius Frdm fr 2001, th Stt Drtmnt sid tht th Irqi gvrnmnt`s viltins f rligius frdms rmind svr. It ntd tht in dditin t rbitrry rrsts, rlngd dtntin nd trtur, `th rgim systmtilly hs killd snir Shi` lris, dsrtd Shi` msqus nd hly sits, intrfrd with Shi` rligius dutin, nd rvntd Shi` dhrnts frm rfrming thir rligius rits.`

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